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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
IV. Systemic Architectonics of
Organisational Levels of Matter
"Since the creative thought is an important attribute, that distinguishes a human being from a monkey, it should be esteemed as higher than gold and kept with more thrift."
So then, all the material reality surrounding us is woven from elements of the three categories - quality, space and time. The motion along these categories provides the Evolution of Matter, without which it cannot practically exist, and comes to the creation of the cascade hierarchy, theoretically designated by us ... a ... B ... F ... K ... and so on. The organisation of the elements of all known levels into complex systems is not casual, but determinated by the motion of Matter in quality, that is along the category, in order to comprehend which (in contradistinction to the two other ones - space and time) it is possible for the human intellect only through developing more and more in itself the highest spheres of scientific abstraction.
As we have ascertained, the fnl. differentiation and structural integration of material formations are caused mainly by the motion of the actual point of the Evolution of Matter in quality-time by the means of permanent augmentation of new functions
().Each newly acquired function becomes a positive moment in the systemic evolution of Matter. But what provokes the appearance of functions themselves? As the causality of this even forward motion of Matter, accompanied by the whole gamut of events and phenomena of the surrounding world, the constant increase of some negative potential inherent in the material reality, neutralised by the systemic evolution of Matter with the help of new functions, serves. We shall not delve deeply in this research also into this mystery of Matter, getting mixed up with really detected by man anti-particles and anti-substance, however, it is unwise nowadays to reject the facts, that this peculiarity of Matter is incarnated concretely in its motion also along one more specific category - 'problems-time'. The nature of this motion is still to be studied in prospect in more detail, but nevertheless it is possible to say safely already now, that together with the even going of periods of time the accumulation of the said negative systemic potential occurs and is outwardly invisible, but being felt in reality fnl. cells become accounting units of it. The necessity of their well-timed filling in with appropriate fng. units creates in the end the whole list of the consecutively growing number of problems. Each newly appearing specific function during the motion of Matter in quality-time, endowing with its characteristics a certain fng. unit, is summoned 'to cover' by itself an appropriate fnl. cell, providing by that a due 'solution' of a next in turn problem of filling in, marked on the coordinate of problems-time. Systemic formations of fng. units, being created at every organisational level, serve for the solution of complex problems of the structural filling in of fnl. cells, at the same time their own organisational laws of neutralisation of a negative systemic potential (physics, chemical, biological, social and so on) are inherent in each of them, while the apogee of the systemic evolution of Matter as a whole is always located within the limits of the latest qualitative level.
Examining the Evolution of Matter from the point of counting off of today, it is not difficult to make certain, that the most actively it occurs at the hypersystemic level and reduces first of all to the optimisation of the hypersystemic organisation. This process is conditioned by the social laws of neutralisation of the negative systemic potential and depends more and more on the organisational abilities of the highest signal subsystems of the cerebrum of the Man. The velocity of the causal motion in problems-time as well as of the neutralising it motion in quality-space-time is described by the known energy formula; therefore for a closed space of the Earth, in which the evolution of the all-human superhypersystem is going meanwhile, the accumulation of the negative systemic potential, and together with it of the number of problems of filling in, is occurring still in the same quadratic dependence on the going of time, that is . The fnl. cells not filled today or filled in by not those fng. units tomorrow, due to the growing of the negative systemic potential, all the same will require their appropriate filling in.
The ignoring of the factor of growth of the number of problems of the systemic filling in does not assist in their well-timed solution; to the unsolved today in this or that hypersystem problems of arisen deficit and shortage there will be added automatically besides somebody's will in much more quantity tomorrow's problems, increasing in the hypersystem the negative systemic-organisational potential, and by that destabilising its social homeostasis. The Matter does not know rest, it is always in motion. Such is the logic of its Dialectics. That is why nowadays as never before it is necessary to concentrate the most intent attention on the potential possibilities of the fng. unit of the level K - the Man, the organising ability of the cerebrum of whom is playing at the hypersystemic level a more and more dominating role both in the solution of accumulating hypersystemic problems through 'the cognition of this necessity' and in the prolongation of the Evolution of Matter as a whole.
Thus, man is the most complex self-regulating functional system that arose as a result of the long synthesis of fnl. systems of all previous sublevels. Man is the organisational peak of systems of all sublevels, extended under him. His organism includes a great number of heterofunctional subsystems, the organs and tissues of which constitute combinations of organic cells various by structure and functions. Those ones in their turn it is possible to partition into molecules, carrying various fnl. loads and consisting from a strictly definite number of various atoms. Atoms themselves constitute precisely designated systems of various subatomic particles, being complex combinations of various quarks. And so on till zero vibration of vacuum and lower... But lower our knowledge is powerless yet to go down. All that the most grandiose interlacement of systems and subsystems of various organisational levels is interacting precisely between themselves within spatial-temporal intervals, submitting to acting at every level own strictly definite regularities of organisational development, being dictated by a growth of the negative systemic potential and regulating the order of the filling in of each fnl. cell with an appropriate fng. unit capable of realising a set of algorithms inherent in a given fnl. cell.
Despite its relative autonomy the system of man's organism is in a permanent interlink with the environment. From there air, water and food enter the organism regularly for the metabolic processes going in it. Man's food is a broad combination of disintegrated components of organisms of the first and second generations, from which he synthesises various fng. units for the filling in fnl. cells of his subsystemic structures. The broader the spectrum of natural components being consumed by him is, that is of those which the human organism adapted itself to assimilate over many thousands of years, the more various the reactions of metabolism going within it are, and the more complete is the set of fng. units being synthesised for the filling in fnl. cells. That is why man in his nutrition has emphasised fruits of plants and meat-milk articles, having a big enumeration of subelements and undergoing easily his intrasystemic treatment. On the contrary, a simplified set of components or their artificial synthesising, making it difficult for the organism to split them, can break metabolic reactions, as a result of which some kinds of fng. units would remain unreproduced and a part of fnl. cells - not filled at all or filled in with ersatz units. All that, as it is known, leads to the increase of the negative potential of the system of a given organism and can be a reason for its illness or even death. Therefore it is necessary to devote a special systemic research to the problems of nourishment, as also to the problems, for example, of alcoholism, smoking, etc., being the consequences of the action of the negative potential of much developed in some organisms' subsystems specialised on the splitting of alcohol or nicotine, requiring permanently for their fnl. cells more and more new portions of fng. units - the 'raw materials' for working over.
One way or another, but to keep up his ability for active functioning the man having 60 - 85 kgs of weight during his life is utilising (consuming, eating, drinking) within 70 - 75 years on average about 40 tons of various foods and as much again of water. Both the food and water being swallowed through the mouth are undergoing in the man's organism the 100% treatment to fng. units and what is exuding out of him is the conglomeration of elements of already worked off and decomposed fng. units. Thus, during the man's life his organism is as if it were restored completely 1000 - 1200 times.
The everyday cycle of existence of the human organism lasting 24 hours is divided into periods of keeping awake and sleep. The period of keeping awake includes the time of active functioning, taking food, receiving information and the time for relaxation (restoration processes) as well as the unproductive and auxiliary spending of time (standing in queues, going to a place of work and so on). The sleep of the man, which includes the paradoxical and slow phases, bears not less by significance fnl. load, connected mainly with nervous-psychical activity of the cerebrum, including the work of the mechanism of memory as well as the recharging of bioaccumulative subsystems. That is why the increasing of periods of active functioning, necessary rest, taking food and sleeping influences positively on the coefficient of the effective use of every-day balance of time of each fng. unit, and the growth of unproductive and auxiliary spending of time - negatively. Thus, the everyday balance of time of each man is rather tense and a relatively short period of time falls on the part of active functioning in a cell of an appropriate fnl. pyramid. The maximum increase of this part without simultaneous reduction of fnl. capabilities of fng. units - is one of the main tasks of the rational organising.
Standing on the top of the systemic evolution of previous organisational sublevels, the Man at the same time is situated at the foot of the hypersystemic organisation of the following ones, filling in by himself fnl. cells of their structures as a fng. unit. All known hyperorganisms are created by the principle of being self-organised and self-regulated systems, however, as the basis of interconnection between fnl. cells of each given structure as well as of the regulation of alternation of an appropriate set of algorithms the biophysicochemical processes, going constantly in the cerebrums of personificated group of people, functioning as fng. units in its fnl. cells, are serving. Let us dwell briefly on these processes.
It is known, that the most developed and evolutionary of the youngest part of the cerebrum is its big hemispheres, occupying the largest part of the man's cranium. On the outside the big hemispheres are covered with a thin layer of the grey cerebral substance with the thickness of 3-4 mm - the cerebral cortex of the big hemispheres, the surface of which in some people reaches 2500 cm2 (in a chimpanzee - 560 cm2, in a dog - 130 cm2), while 2/3 of this surface falls on the sides and the bottom of the fissures and only 1/3 is situated on the surface. Under the cerebral cortex the white substance is disposed, consisting of long sprouts of nervous cells - nerve-fibres, connecting various areas of the cortex between themselves as well as the cortex itself with undercortex centres.
The cortex numbers until 100 milliards of neurones of various dimensions, shape and structure. They are 'packed up' very tightly and thrifty (in 1 mm3 there are more than 30 thousand neurones) and constitute six layers that differ by their functions. Owing to their sprouts and synapses the nervous cells of the cortex come into numerous contacts with each other. The number of similar links in the cortex is extremely great, if to take into consideration that the number of contacts of each out of 100 milliards of nervous cells and its sprouts with other cells and their sprouts can reach up to 6000. Therefore the cortex constitutes a single harmoniously functioning whole. The nervous cells of the cortex cannot divide, that is to multiply. A new-born baby has the same number of nervous cells as an adult organism. At the same time, as from the age of 30-35 years old, the number of nervous cells that every man has, is decreasing permanently: more than 50 thousand nervous cells are being destroyed every day. The evolution of the cortex is going on the way of extension of its surface, the complication of the structure of the cells and an increase in the number of contacts between them.
The cerebral cortex is the direct material basis of the thinking and consciousness of man, of his spirituality. In the cortex of both hemispheres of the cerebrum the four parts are distinguished: frontal, occipital, sincipital and temporal. The frontal lobes are the highest parts of the cerebrum. They appeared the latest during the process of evolution and occupy with the man up to 30% of the cortex's surface, while with a chimpanzee - 16, with a dog - 7, with a cat - 3 percent. The frontal lobes play the most important role in the organisation of the purposeful activity, its subordination to firm intentions, stimulating reasons (motives). The other parts are in charge of the receiving, working over and storage of the information, coming from the correspondingly irritated organs of sense.
The afferent nerve-fibres, coming to the cortex from lower parts of the cerebrum, end mainly in the third and the fourth layers; only some of them span also to the first layer as well. Because of the numerous links of the lower pyramidal cells with the associative cells of the second and third layers they are receiving the signals from the afferent nerve-fibres also through these cells. Thus, in the cerebral cortex as well as in other parts of the nervous system, the neurones form closed cyclical chains of various complexity. Each such chain has its group of afferent and efferent fibres. In such a system an excitement can be extended in all directions, both from an afferent fibre to an efferent one and vice versa, though in each link the impulses of excitement go only in one direction: the dendrite the body of a cell the axon the synapse the dendrite and so on. All closed chains and other connections of neurones are surrounded by a thick circuit of nervous sprouts, coming away from the cells participating in nervous circles, forming the neuropile, the structure of which numerous cells with short axons and much ramified dendrites also form. The neurone-neuropile structure of the cerebral cortex does not resemble similar formations in other parts of the nervous system; it is more developed, more highly organised and is destined for the implementation of the most complex functions of the cerebral cortex connected with the operating of the first, second, third and fourth signal subsystems, responsible for the normal functioning of the organism itself, his stay in conditions of environment, his interrelations with other people, his functioning as a fng. unit in some fnl. cell of fnl. pyramids of the society as well as for the content of his inner world, that is his capacity for perception, imagination, the formation of notions, images and finally creativity.
The cerebrum receives the information about the environment and the character of interaction with it through six organs of sense (eyesight, hearing, scent, touch, taste and the perceiving part of skin-muscular irritations), constantly functioning at periods of keeping awake of the organism in the mode of operation 'entry' of its appropriate signal subsystems. For the perceiving of excitements from receptors of these organs there are specialised analytical fnl. centres in the cortex, united into a particular perceiving surface. Primitive fnl. centres of the cerebrum's first signal subsystem were formed, as we have already mentioned above, with ancient representatives of the animal world. The role of these centres was to take some or other 'decision', as a reaction to this or that information-irritation, received from some organ. If the centre after analysing the information took an incorrect decision, that is initiated an unproper reaction, then the animal with such a centre sooner or later perished. Only those animals were surviving, whose centres were giving out 'correct decisions'. By such a formula the natural selection was and is being fulfilled until nowadays, being the efficacious mechanism of the evolution. As subsystems of the organism were developing, the perfection of specialised centres of the first signal subsystem was going on as well, but with the appearance and perfecting of the second signal subsystem appropriate specialised centres of the second signal subsystem also appeared and started their development. The organisational structure of these centres became much more complex in comparison with centres of the first signal subsystem as the functions being carried out by them became of a higher order. To the main known centres of the second signal subsystem of the cortex it is possible to attribute:
a) the speech-motor centre of Broke, providing the possibility to speak,
b) the auditory-speech centre of Vernike, providing the possibility to hear and understand someone else's speech,
c) the optic-speech centre of Degerina, or the centre of reading and comprehension of speech in writing, and others.
In the cerebral cortex it is possible to pick out as well other areas, or zones (groups of cells, distinguishing themselves by a specific form, size and structure), the functions of which are linked with these or those psychical manifestations of the organism. Therefore it is quite natural, that with the formation in due time in the man's organism of the third, and later of the fourth signal subsystems, appropriate specialised centres began arising in historically young layers of the frontal lobes of his cerebrum's cortex, their structure being different to a considerable extent from the centres of lower signal subsystems. Their main distinction is that their receptors are situated not in the organs of sense, but in the specialised centres themselves of the first and second signal subsystems. Owing to this these centres have very short afferent and efferent fibres, but their number is relatively very great. Specialised centres of the fourth signal subsystem spatially are located more distantly than centres of the third signal subsystem and already have their receptors inside the latter ones. Thus, the higher by its fnl. level a centre is, the more distantly it is situated from the primary fnl. core of the cerebrum, and in the aggregate all centres constitute some kind of a pyramid with the top directed downwards. On the very top of this pyramid the centres of the first signal subsystem are located, regulating the function of the heart, the lungs, the digestive system etc. These centres, vitally important for the man's organism, are hidden safer than others in the cerebrum's depth and before all the rest receive nutrition through the blood. Further to the pyramid's foundation the centres of the second, the third and finally of the fourth signal subsystems are located.
Besides the difference in structure, the centres of the highest signal subsystems are somewhat different in their character of functioning. So, if the centres of the first and the second signal subsystems, operating by the scheme: 'an irritation the analysis the reaction (a decision) the action' and possessing practically a ready set of decisions, spend, as a rule, seconds on the implementation of this psychical algorithm, then in the centres of the third, but especially of the fourth signal subsystems, hours and days, but sometimes months and years are spent for each phase. Moreover, many irritations of the first and the second signal subsystems began to get and be worked over in the centres of the third, but sometimes even of the fourth signal subsystems. That is why in the character of functioning of specialised centres of the highest signal subsystems the processes of the versatile working up of information are prevailing more and more on the way of its analysis, comparison, estimation of possible decisions as well as of the working out of new notions, associations and algorithms of action. Thus, the phase of 'associating, creating' of a notion or a decision, being added into the scheme of centres' functioning, turned out to be the most energy-consuming and long. Owing to this the functioning of these centres becomes more and more associative, due to which it is possible to name them with confidence the associative fnl. centres of the highest signal subsystems.
In accordance with the existing localisation of various centres of nervous-psychical functions in certain parts of the cortex, its area has divided into regions, in which the centres are united, that provide the normal functioning of both the lowest and the highest signal subsystems of the cerebrum. So, apart from a relatively small perceiving surface of the first signal subsystem, reacting to the most utilitarian irritations, and a more significant optic-auditory area of the second signal subsystem, in the process of the evolution of the human being the associative areas of the highest signal subsystems, piercing more and more all the fnl. depth of the cerebrum, receive more and more development in the cortex. Owing to this, a considerable part of the cortex begins to serve as the basis for the man's intellectual-creative associations. Therefore, if with apes a 1/3 of the surface of the whole cortex is free from direct perception, then with some people this zone reaches and sometimes even exceeds 2/3.
The localisation of psychical functions reveals itself more and more distinctly as the evolution of the cerebrum is going. At present more than 100 functionally different centres mainly of the first and the second signal subsystems are known, running and controlling the going of these or those algorithms of subsystems both inside the organism and outside it. It is quite natural that there are much more of these centres due to the fact that, as we have already established, each centre 'serves' only its own, strictly specific function inside or outside the organism, but there are many and many hundreds, as it is known, of only outward functions, as all the social-production activity, taking place around us, consists of some or other functions. But various people have their own individual set of the cerebrum's centres, which are being reflected in the personality of each man, his individual spirituality and professional capabilities, in other words, forming that which usually considered as 'the spirit' of the human being. Due to it people differ not only by the outward appearance of their face, but also by the inner cast of mind providing their nervous-psychical ability to diverse functional activity, being as if carriers of spectrums of the cerebrum's fnl. centres formed in them. So, in spectrums of some people there are appropriate centres, enabling them to play musical instruments and even to compose music, others do not have such centres. Some people are able to learn foreign languages, others not, some can swim, others not, some can ride a bicycle, others not, some can play chess, others not, some can draw up programs for computers, others not, some can build houses, others not, etc.
As the evolution of Matter and its motion in quality-time are going, a further differentiation, specialisation and localisation of functions in the cerebral cortex of the man occurs, however, their simultaneous integration excludes a separate functioning of certain areas of the cortex. Owing to this the cortex of the big hemispheres combines the activity of individual centres into a single whole. In accordance with requirements of the organisation of Matter more and more new fnl. centres originate in the associative areas of the cortex, by that materialising the motion in quality-time at the contemporary stage. Their formation happens from an innumerable multitude of possible interneuronic connections, among which some tracks are being singled out gradually, bringing about at first a relatively small number of communications. Temporary fnl. connections (associations) are fixed the more strongly, the more frequently they are recurring. They break original disconnection of neurones and originate the whole ensembles, elements of which can be situated in various parts of the cortex. As the whole volume of periodic information is being received, in the cortex of the cerebrum the experience of every day is being fixed, which it is possible to identify with the knowledge of algorithms and which is being accumulated gradually from day to day. To its fixation, or to the recording of algorithms, the well-adjusted mechanism of memory, especially of the long duration one, is assisting.
As it is known, in the basis of this mechanism there are biochemical reactions, changing the structure of RNA, which is reflected on the bioelectric conductivity by the cell of these or those impulses, their generation and fading out. With the mechanism of memory our 'Ego', that is the self-consciousness, is linked. The storage and recalling of the information is one of the most important functions of the cerebral cortex. With the man the operational, of short duration and of long duration memories are distinguished. The operational memory, based mostly on biophysical phenomena, can keep a small quantity of information for some minutes. The subsystem of the memory of short duration keeps information with the time of half-desintegration of the biochemical recordings on average about 12 hours, that is after this period of time the man is able to recall only a half of the information received by him. And only the memory of long duration is able to keep biotraces of the information received before for several tens of years, however, the level of recall of this information is rather low and does not exceed on average 5%. That is why, starting from a certain historic moment with the appearance of highly organised hyperorganisms, which possessed high-complex algorithms, the systemic development itself compelled the man to use more and more often the way of storage of algorithms-recordings and other information in the written form, which moreover is convenient also, that it can be used simultaneously or in turn by several fng. units - people. Further development of the organisation of hyperorganisms required some more capacious storage of information, a more rapid way of its recording and recalling as well as a more convenient access to it. Therefore the attraction to the working up of information the memory capacity of electronic computers with their colossal possibilities increased some more the fund of algorithms and the coefficient of its fnl. use.
The localisation of fnl. centres in the cerebral cortex is not by chance just so, as it does not remain without leaving a trace. The structural specialisation of fnl. abilities of subsystems of the cortex is recorded genetically and is handing down from generation to generation, while the nervous cells, forming this or that centre, keep their ability exactly to a given kind of functioning. Owing to this there are areas in the cortex, which from 'the birth' are predestined for the analytical and synthetic working up of information, coming in from without. These are projecting centres of excitability. Their fnl. predestination depends on a place of entry into the cortex of projecting fibres of bellow-laid parts of the nervous system. Around these centres the areas are disposed, where the results of associations are being fixed mainly at the expense of the elements of a given centre; slightly further the areas of the cortex are disposed, in which results of associations between centres of various fnl. significance are being secured.
The ability to make associations in areas, situated outside the projecting centres of excitability, depends on the individual structure of the cortex expanding according to a genorecording heredited by the organism as well as from the experience gained after-wards. That is why these areas cannot be totally identical in various people and entirely depend on their individual genoheredity and phenodevelopment. Owing to this the capacity for localisation of newly acquired centres also differs among various people and even during the life of a man it is altering depending on the changes of psychical-physiological factors. Such centres as 'organising', 'inventiveness', 'compositional creativity' and many others ought to be attributed to the number of localised associative centres of the highest signal subsystems of the cerebrum, at the same time each centre has its own specialised irritants, analysers, associators and other sections similar to them. The analysis of the evolution of the highest signal subsystems' structure and its extrapolation show, that in future in the cerebral cortex mainly those layers and areas will receive a further development, which are predestined mostly for the formation of newer and newer associative centres, as the number of such centres will continue to grow with simultaneous increase in the aggregate spectrum of comprehended functions of the hypersystemic level.
At the same time, the rapid localisation of the bigger and bigger number of associative fnl. centres in the cortex is not accompanied simultaneously by appropriate alterations of biophysiological parameters of the man's organism. For this reason a strictly limited quantity of oxygen and nutrition, taking part in metabolic processes going in the cerebrum, come into it. The existing subsystem of supply is unable to provide simultaneous active functioning of one hundred and more centres of excitement at once, and it is difficult even to imagine a result of their joint work. Owing to this, the work of the cortex's centres is being coordinated in such a way, that at any given moment of time only a few of them function simultaneously. All the others are inhibited, reactively passive and consume nutrition and oxygen in the most minimum of quantities. If it is necessary, a part of inhibited centres can be excited, but at the same time the excitement goes out of a part of the centres that were functioning before. The above coordination underlay, a so named 'roving centre of heed', functioning in each cerebrum, which is keeping order so that at every given moment a strictly limited set of the cortex's centres is in the mode of active functioning and all the others remain in the inhibited state.
It is possible to compare the action of the roving centre of heed in connecting in turn centres of the cerebral cortex to active functioning with playing of the piano, when a musician presses in turn by five-ten fingers now one, now another set of piano-keys to select an appropriate gamut of sounds which reconstitute a marvellous melody. If he presses simultaneously more than fifty keys, we would hear nothing harmonious. It is possible to observe the same in the cerebral cortex, where bioelectric impulses of currents of diverse magnitude are overflowing soundlessly along communications of neurone's ensembles of various sets of fnl. centres of signal subsystems, initiating all the diversity of activity of the multimilliardth human civilisation over thousands of years.
As the fnl. differentiation and hypersystemic integration take place, in the cerebral cortex of every man depending on a fnl. cell, in which he is functioning as a fng. unit, some certain gamut of centres is being excited much more often than the others. Its active use, but that also means a more intensified nutrition gives the cells of its centres an advantage in development with respect to cells of other centres, being permanently in the inhibited condition. The genetic heredity to posterity the structure of organism hands down also this specific difference in fnl. nuances of signal subsystems of the cerebrum, fixed afterwards in the process of the phenodevelopment of an organism. That is why someone of five years old already plays the violin perfectly, others over hours do something, ignoring their friends of the same age playing with a ball, the third ones like drawing, someone else, having good hearing and voice, sings songs uncommonly well, and so on. Thus, already in children's games it is possible to trace fnl. versatility of people, inherited genetically. With age it becomes much more considerable.
Yet I.P. Pavlov singled out among the variety of the human behaviour four different types of psychical temperaments, which afterwards began to be named as sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholy. Still earlier an original differentiation of functional abilities and psychophysiological distinction of people depending on the month and the year of their birth were noticed in countries of the ancient East (China, Japan) and therefore a keen interest is being taken until now in horoscopes by the Eastern calendar. In reality the phenogenetic classification of human individuals, which is still to be made up in prospect, is far wider, though on man's outward appearance it reflects in no way and that creates in people's notion the impression (or an illusion) of fnl. equivalentness of all human organisms and causes a certain muddle while filling in fnl. cells of hyperorganisms with fng. units. The correct understanding and soonest practical use of fnl. peculiarities of the cerebrum of each individual with the help of the functional-psychological classification of man's types made up in full volume would have a great effect on improvement on both the social-economic and the private life of people of any hyperorganism (from an amelioration of quality of functioning in every fnl. cell of fnl. pyramids of hyperorganisms to a reduction of the number of divorces).
As we have already noted earlier, the genetic coding of fnl. abilities of fng. units - people to the implementation of a certain row of specific fnl. algorithms had resulted with time in the appearance of their sharply expressed genetic heterogeneity, that is to an unidentical ability to implement these or those fnl. algorithms. By now the genetic non-uniformity corrected by the phenotypic imposition (that is by an experience and knowledge gained during the life of an individual) has reached such a straggle that all human diversity can be already safely divided as a minimum into three varieties of people (though possibly five and more), absolutely different intrinsically (inside the hemispheres of the cerebrum of each individual only!), but outwardly differing practically by nothing:
1. The individuals phenogenetically of the highest category.
Here we can attribute all creative people with a highly developed intellect who have also received a good combination of portions of the phenogenofund, that is a good heredity plus an excellent upbringing and education, and who are mentally healthy. They are the carriers of many-sided spectrums of specialised centres of all four signal subsystems of the cerebral cortex, but first of all of its associative centres. One or several associative centres of their spectrums, as a rule, are developed extraordinarily. They have a high culture and morals. Exactly such individuals replenish the rows of the creative intelligentsia; in the midst of them are born outstanding scientists and statesmen, organisers and inventors, famous writers, poets and active politicians, well-known actors and film producers, journalists, doctors, big businessmen, artists, composers, distinguished military leaders, etc. It is the most beneficial for society that individuals of this category should occupy fnl. cells at upper parts of hypersystemic pyramids.
2. The individuals phenogenetically of the medium category.
Here we can attribute executive people with a middling developed intellect who have also a mediocre combination of portions of the phenogenofund, that is a good heredity plus poor upbringing and education, or a bad heredity plus good upbringing and education. Their spectrum of specialised centres is much more scanty and the centres themselves are much more ordinary, than those of the previous group. A deficiency of associative centres is above all felt. Such individuals are better for the roles of executors, therefore they supplement mainly the rows of the technical intelligentsia; from the midst of them ordinary engineers, technicians, functionaries, doctors, teachers, employers, workers, musicians, mediocre writers, servicemen, farmers and so on emerge. Owing to this, fnl. cells of middle and low parts of hypersystemic pyramids ought to be filled in exactly with them.
3. The individuals phenogenetically of the lowest category.
Here we can attribute all people with a poorly developed or under-developed intellect who have received the worst combination of portions of the phenogenofund, that is a bad heredity plus poor upbringing and education. These people are often mentally unbalanced, but sometimes simply have mental deviations. In rather narrow spectrums of their specialised centres in contradistinction to two previous groups only centres of the first signal subsystem mainly prevail, the others are in an undeveloped state or not present at all. Their culture, morals and standards of behaviour are usually at the comparatively lowest level and often are accompanied by one or several vices. These individuals cannot join normally any systemic formation and therefore supplement the rows of negligent workmen, low-skilled labour force, just primitive people, but before all, of various criminals, terrorists, alcoholics, racketeers, thieves, bribe-takers, rapists, murderers, simply mentally abnormal individuals (danger categories of schizophrenics, drug addicts, fanatics, maniacs and so on), etc. Bearing this in mind, society is obliged to take individuals of this category under particular control, to place them into specially isolated fnl. cells. Otherwise society may find itself as their hostage or, much worse, draw nearer to the verge of its collapse.
From the history we know that both the second and the third categories of people are inclined to unification. So, the second one is uniting into trade unions, parties, etc. As for unifications of people of the third category such ones ought to be attributed as gangs, bands, Mafias, sects and so on. The first one, the highest category of people, owing to their paucity and specific character of functioning, practically does not know mass unifications. The most danger and unpredictability constitute unifications formed from representatives of both the lowest categories.
Society, as a rule, is fighting with people of the third category, isolating them from the first two ones and forcing to function in the mode of operation of the second category, but sometimes simply mortifying them. Society has to do that to remain robust. In situations when representatives of the third, the lowest category, start to penetrate into fnl. cells up along the vertical of fnl. social pyramids, a lingering indisposition, but sometimes also an extreme danger threatens society. That is why the struggle for democracy and human rights should be carried on taking into account all above named factors, otherwise maniacs and schizophrenics, idlers and thieves will always have the same rights and privileges as workers and farmers, inventors and doctors, or worse than that, be their managers.
In each country the entire population divides obligatorily into these minimum three varieties of people and the higher a percentage of people of the highest categories lives in it, the more highly developed a given country can be considered (compare Austria, Sweden and Germany, on the one hand, and Guinea, Nigeria and Afghanistan, on the other hand). Those countries, in the social spectrum of which an appreciable part of the people occupy, attributed to the individuals phenogenetically of the lowest category, with the tendency towards an increase of this part, it is possible with confidence to rank among countries becoming gradually degraded. The time will come when each nation and country will be receiving periodically a comparative estimation of the level of its aggregate intellectual development, which will depend on the size of shares in its social spectrum being occupied by each of categories of individuals.
So then, regarding with which exact phenogenofund and temperament a fng. unit - individual occupies a given fnl. cell, the efficiency of implementation of appropriate algorithms as well as the keeping up of contacts with fng. units of related fnl. cells depend on in many respects. At the present-day hypersystemic organisation a paramount importance should be attached to this factor, meanwhile the higher a fnl. cell is situated in the hierarchy of fnl. pyramids, the more requirements a fng. unit filling in it should meet, in the phenogenofund of which an appropriate spectrum of associative centres of the highest signal subsystem of his cerebrum should be traced distinctly, and in the first instance, those responsible for 'the organising creativity'. The communicability of this fng. unit should be appropriate as well.
The motion of Matter in quality-time entails, as we have established, a permanent augmentation of new functions
().At the present level of the Evolution this in its turn is leading to the complication of the hypersystemic organisation of human society, at which more and more functions fall on fnl. cells of the pyramids' tops. For the effective implementation of these multiplying functions fng. units with a wider and wider spectrum of associative centres of the cerebral cortex begin to be required. It is quite natural that it becomes more and more intricate to pick such individuals. Therefore, recently the cases began to occur more and more often, when in a fnl. cell several fng. units are being combined, whose diverse sets of the cortex's associative centres mutually complement one another, providing the need for a more comprehensive spectrum. The correct combination of the cerebra's fnl. abilities of several fng. units with various associative centres became the basis of the activity of 'collective leadership' of hyperorganisms' development, forming almost their 'collective brain' or a superbrain. As samples to that can serve first of all a family council, a council of elders, a board of directors, an academic council, the State Council, the European Council, the UN Security Council and so on. The further perfection of this process will be the best combination of associative centres of fng. units, being included into organs of collective government, in the aggregate spectrum of any super brain being formed, therefore the selection of candidates into each fnl. cell of any council by individual intellectual capabilities ought to be particularly thorough and not casual.
It is quite natural that establishment of individual contacts for the sake of mutual understanding takes, as a rule, a relatively long period of time, which is practically very difficult to realise in the process of active public functioning, especially in fnl. cells of the highest level, due to an objective scantiness of time. Therefore in some high-organised hypersystems the 'block method' of replacement of fng. units, picked by the principle of mutual complementation, began to be used more and more in fnl. cells of the top of a government pyramid. So, in the USA and other countries, while taking the post a newly elected president replaces the whole 'team' of fng. units of the administration in the upper level of the leadership. In Great Britain apart from the acting cabinet of ministers there is always a well-adjusted 'shadow' cabinet of the opposition ready for public activity. And so on...
The evolution of hyperorganisms, as we know, did not finish at the creation of the organisational structure of present-day states. As a result of the activation of this process the tendency to a bigger geosystemic integration was outlined recently, at which already states themselves as fng. units began to fill in fnl. cells of newly created superhyperorganisms. Starting from military coordination, this process is taking in more and more also the economic life, assisting in the arising of such superhyperunions as NATO, the European Economic Community, North American Economic Union, OPEC, etc. As examples of geosystemic formations of the highest for today organisational level L the European Union and the UNO ought to be considered.
At the same time the process of further integration of the joint human Mind (so named the noosphere or the Supermind) and self-consciousness, mainly through the mass media, is continuing gradually as well. In the basis of their mechanisms there is the formation of specific associative centres in the cerebra of a bigger and bigger number of individuals of all Humanity, equally tuned in to realising general problems and searching for their solutions. The more and more active functioning of the Supermind permits the opportunity of a rise in the level of problems being considered, as the possibilities of re-combinations in it are practically endless. The noosphere contains also all the information accumulated by mankind during the whole period of its development. Such familiar objects as the aggregate individual memory, textbooks, libraries, archives, museums and so on should be considered as elements of the noosphere.
Thus, Humanity realises itself more and more as a single world Society. Therefore the time should come very soon when a single world Parliament and a single world Government, created, for example on the base of the UNO, leaning for support in their activity on the Supreme Council of Experts (the collective scientific Mind, formed from a group of leading scientists from various countries) will be in charge of all processes within the limits of the Earth's civilisation. Exactly these organs of a supreme world governing, on the recommendations of the Supreme Council of Experts, will determine an optimal number and regulate the growth of the population on our planet, proceeding from the needs and possibilities of Humanity itself. Its numbers already now exceeds five and a half billion people, which means that only to feed all of them more than 5 million tons of various high-nutritious foodstuffs and as much again of clean drinking water is required every day. Precisely this world governing body will take care of the problems of the reduction of still increasing death-bringing ozone holes in the stratosphere and the augmentation of the fecund humus layer of the soil as well as of afforestations, producing oxygen. It should be involved in the burial of nuclear wastes in a most reasonable way and the struggle with pollution of the sea and oceans as well as of the Earth's atmosphere. Exactly it should organise the struggle with international crime and terrorism, other mental deviations and manifestations, assisting at the same time the propagation everywhere of high-level upbringing and education of human individuals as the main method of the aggregate cutting down of the share of individuals of the lowest category in the limits of the entire Humanity, etc.
But where is the limit of the systemic integration of Matter itself seen? As a reply to this question it is necessary to emphasise once again that all of us are still staying on one of the smallest islets - the Earth, surrounded by the boundless space of the Universe, into which Humanity fastens unwittingly more and more often their gazes. It is really so that as the theatre of the deployment of structures of the latest organisational levels of Matter it should be considered (since we have no other information) the surface of the Earth...
But already space ships have breached this spatial isolation in the timid search of other civilisations or in initial attempts of detaching from our own. And this is only the beginning of a NEW PERIOD (the period of extrasuperhyperorganisation in the limits of the visible in the future motion of the evolving Matter along the conceptual organisational level M).
There is no doubt that Man has appeared as a result of the motion in quality along one of perspective branches of the Evolution of Matter, at which the further organising part is falling more and more on the highest signal subsystems of his Cerebrum. However, apart from the perfection of the systemic organisation of superhyperorganisms he should take no less care also of the environment (that is not to cut the bough on which he has grown up), and also of keeping a reasonable balance of his numbers, which should be adjusted in accordance with the dynamics of a required quantity of hyperorganisms' fnl. cells and of the ability of this or that group of the population to feed themselves in recommended norms as well as to receive a necessary for the present-day level of life upbringing and education. On how reasonably and rationally he will be doing it, the question depends, if our branch of the Evolution of Matter is a deadlock. Anyhow, nobody should forget, that the overwhelming majority of the present civilisation lives in areas of hypersystemic degradation and is attributed to individuals of the lowest category, and also that Humanity already possesses a multiple possibility of destroying itself. It is enough to press a few buttons... And all that depends not on some abstract man, but on concrete people, occupying at present these or those fnl. cells of existing hyperorganisms, on us with you. Therefore, each person is obliged during his life to develop and keep up his capabilities, knowledge and skill, in order to have the highest possible intellectual potential and correspond at a maximum to the present-day level of development of the advanced part of society, and then to the progress of evolution of Matter as a whole.
In our contemporary world we are the witnesses of the constant polarisation of hypersystemic relations. Until Humanity remains isolated in the limits of the Earth, the factor of systems' bipolarity, always assisting in a spatial division of the energetic centre from the entropic one, will be acting apart from our will, leaving the hyperorganisms situated in the limits of action of the entropic centre to live more modestly, than more organisationally perfect hyperorganisms of the energetic centre. Nevertheless, the state of homeostasis of each hypersystem and its functional perspectivity entirely depends on the coefficient of fnl. efficiency of systemic organisation, examined by us, the growth of which is pre-determined by the existence of Matter itself. Logic says that it should be higher with hyperorganisms of the fourth type, but it will not grow by itself - everyone should be persistently striving for this.
Standing on the top of the whole past time, Man, acquiring a bigger and bigger capacity for abstract thinking, glances also at a visible future. But he should remember permanently that the period of his active creative functioning is at the present.
"What doesn't develop - it doesn't live, but what doesn't live - it is dying."
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