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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
Dialectical Genesis of Material Systems
"Afterwards the natural science will include the science about human beings exactly in the same way as the science about human beings will include the natural science - it will be a single science."
So man, being the most complex system of fng. units, in which biochemical processes of various types precisely coordinated in space and time are permanently taking place, from a certain time himself was becoming gradually a fng. unit in the systemic organisation of Matter of a higher level, filling in appropriate fnl. cells there. From this moment the epoch of self-organising systems of a new kind began, though their germs we can examine already on the organisational level I. Thus, analysing the structure of a biogeocoenosis, we see, that a forest thicket constitutes a system of various fnl. cells, filled in with appropriate fng. units - trees, bushes and grass. Some generations of plants after they stop functioning die off and fnl. cells, which have become free, are being filled in with new plants.
Among organisms of the second and third generations it is possible also to observe a primitive systemic organisation of fnl. cells of the new level. It is possible to attribute to it settlements of ants (ant-hills), swarms of bees, shoals of fish, flocks of birds, packs of wolves, herds, etc. It is quite natural that all those formations can only theoretically be called organisations, but nevertheless they do have some of its features. In the foundation of these formations there was a differentiation of functions of fnl. cells, structurally linked between themselves and integrated into a single system. The single systemic organisation of the above formations allows only a hypothetical division of the said groups into fnl. subgroups, as their actual division in most cases leads to a breach of the integrity of a system. Thus, if from a swarm of bees a fnl. subgroup were to separate off, say, of drones, the entire swarm as a single system will cease to exist. In packs of wolves and monkeys we shall detect without fail the fnl. cell of the leader, which is always being occupied by the strongest and the most hardy member of a pack, that is, in other words, the one that has the most developed phenogenotype.
Functionally various fnl. cells of systems of the new type have also their own, strictly determinated fnl. algorithms, which a fng. unit situated in a fnl. cell is obliged to fulfil. This is a single law for all systemic formations of Matter. So, a drone is not in a position to carry out properly fnl. algorithms of a working bee exactly in the same way as a working bee is not capable of fulfilling the functions of a drone. A weak leader cannot introduce order inside a park as well as protect it against foreign enemies, etc.
As it is known, one of the first links in the systemic organisation of the level K was the organisation of family, which can be considered also as the last link in the process of evolution along the sublevel I. From a two-cell system among organisms of the first generation (a primary cell: a motherly plant + a secondary cell: seeds) the family structure was transformed into a three-cell system among organisms of the second and third generations (two primary cells: a father and a mother + a secondary cell: posterity). The duration of existence of the structure of a family varies from the duration of conception periods until periods of bringing up of posterity. A family of full value exists until the death of one of a married couple. The normal functioning of a family formation can be reached only on the condition of the filling in of all cells of its structure with appropriate fng. units. The absence or a disparity of one of them is a sufficient factor to lead to a break-up of a given formation.
Each fnl. cell, including a family one, has a definite set of fnl. algorithms, which a fng. unit filling it is obliged to fulfil. Because of this there are specific fnl. algorithms of a father, algorithms of a mother as well as algorithms of posterity. With each species of organisms they are different, but in many respects are similar between themselves. Their recording is kept on the same chains of DNA-RNA and is inherited by each subsequent generation in the form of a hereditary genome. It is known, that starting from the moment of an impregnation, an ovum in each of its organic cells in the process of reproduction has all the aggregate of genes, that is all the parents' information, which is necessary for an organism to provide its growth, existence and functioning. But at no one moment does an organism require the information in full volume. Therefore small sets of genes, named 'transposons', are able to leave chromosomes, to move over from one organic cell to another one, transferring this or that information.
The next decisive step in the systemic organisation of Matter along the level K was the origination of new fnl. structures, which fnl. cells already so supercomplex material formations were filling in for certain periods of time, as human individuals, who were functioning there, executing required fnl. algorithms. Systemic formations of this kind we shall name hyperorganisms. Their appearance could take place only as a consequence of the association of several primordial families into a single herd as well as the further increase of polyfunctioning of the subsystem of human organism - 'brain-hand', which with the help of newer and newer tools could execute newer and newer fnl. algorithms. Moving into a fnl. cell of a primitive hyperorganism, a man, as a fng. unit of a fnl. system - a primordial family had temporarily to leave its fnl. cell, though at that initial period of hyperorganisation this transference looked rather theoretical. Thus, already the first differentiation of man's functions became the cause of the structural integration of a primitive herd. Fnl. groups of a new type appeared as a result of it, and constituted structures of fnl. cells that had their own strictly designated algorithms, which were executed by fng. units that were filling them in. Thus, out of all organisms of the second, third and fourth generations only the organism of the fourth generation, that had the highest internal systemic organisation, the human being, could become a fng. unit in hyperorganisms.
As an example let us examine the procedure of the functioning of fng. units in a group of hunters for mammoths. Two-three tens of outwardly alike men armed with similarities of lances and stones were filling in its structure. All of them were occupying invisibly various fnl. cells in a formed group and therefore algorithms being fulfilled by them were not the same. So, one of them came running to the nomad camp and gave the others to understand, that he had seen not far away a mammoth or its fresh tracks. The other one, after arming himself with a lance, rushed first in the direction shown bringing along after him the others. The third one chose a convenient place to attack the animal and gave the signal to descend on it. The fourth one after the killing of the mammoth began preparing its carcass. The fifth one made a camp fire and began to roast the meat. The sixth one, who was staying in the nomad camp during the absence of the hunters, made for them a few new lances. After returning with the bag back to the nomad camp, the men moved invisibly from the fnl. cells of the group of hunters into their families' cells in order the next morning to move over again in the same way invisibly from the families' cells to the fnl. cells of hunters. And it went on like this from day to day, from generation to generation.
Out of the example examined by us it follows, that a fng. unit of the new organisational level of Matter is being placed into an appropriate fnl. cell only for a period of functioning, leaving it, as soon as the necessity of staying there temporarily falls away, and filling it in again at an arising of the said necessity. At the same time transferences from cell to cell began to have the character of regular reiteration. With this peculiarity of the organisational level K broad possibilities in increasing functions
()were opening before Matter, that is for the creation of an increasing quantity of fnl. cells while its motion along the ordinate of quality-time at simultaneous use of a considerably less number of fng. units - men, who had because of this to perfect more and more their capability to occupy in turn several cells, raising by that the coefficient of their individual polyfunctioning. Fnl. algorithms of each fnl. cell of systemic formations of the level K, that is of hyperorganisms, were being recorded at that time in the form of biochemical recordings in colonies of organic cells of a cerebrum of individual people, capable of accomplishing, retaining and recalling these recordings, constituting interneuronic links, through which at a certain moment biocurrent is going. Owing to this the further natural selection of fng. units K selected out the people, who were differing at all other equal parameters of their organisms by a bigger number of nervous cells in the cerebral hemispheres able to form a bigger number of analytical fnl. centres of the signal subsystem. And though this process was proceeding rather slowly, nevertheless it has yielded its results. Thus, if the Synanthropus, who existed 500 thousand years ago, had the volume of cranium of only 850-1250 cm3, then the volume of the cerebrum of the Neanderthal man, who lived on the Earth 150 thousand years ago, was already more than 1400 cm3, although there were not so many convolutions of the brain yet in it. The Neanderthal man was feeding on meat and vegetable food, was dressing in skins and living in groups of 50-100 persons. A human family could not exist at that time alone, as it would perish quickly, not being able to defend itself from wild animals as well as get enough food. Therefore from the first steps of his evolution the human being was a collective animal. Thanks to his capability of polyfunctioning only he could become a versatile fng. unit in hypersystems' cells of the level K.
Permanent participation in collective events, whether it was hunting or a defence from enemies, required people to establish contacts between themselves. It followed also from the law of creation of evolving systems, according to which between fnl. cells of any structure there should be an interlink of a certain kind. With time it was also formed gradually between fnl. cells in structures of the level K - people: at first by gestures and then by a meaningful way of speaking. So, already the Neanderthal men were associating between themselves by gestures and by articulate sounds. All this, as it is known, was the origination of the second signal subsystem, the material foundation of which the same neurones of big cerebral hemispheres' cortex were serving. Here the invisible process of establishing the new interneuronic links, of the formation of more complex analytical-initiating fnl. centres was constantly progressing as well as of recording on DNA-RNA of organic cells of appropriate biological modifications of organism's subsystems. As far as it was developing the second signal subsystem was revealing more and more actively its fnl. significance in people's life. Now already, not only the appearance of a mammoth, but also a sound symbol, designating it, pronounced by one of the members of a human herd, became a sufficient irritant and exited appropriate subsystems of hunters' organisms, as a result of which they would rush in the direction of the proposed location of the wild animal, that is of the object of the irritation. Some other animals, for example, dogs, cats, etc., also have the rudiments of the second signal subsystem, but its manifestation in these organisms has a very limited, primitive and unilateral character. Only in the human being with the colossal potential of his cerebrum, did the second signal subsystem get its further fnl. development, which was reflected in the fnl. specialisation of subsystems of hearing, the way of speaking and again of those analytical-initiating fnl. centres of the cerebrum.
Simultaneously, with the evolution of the subsystems of the human being's organism as a fng. unit of the level K, fnl. algorithms of fnl. cells of hyperstructures went on to perfect themselves, in particular, algorithms of tools' manufacture. Thus, man learned progressively to split stones into plates and to make out of them lance-heads, knifes, scrapers, prickers. Each new algorithm despite its relative simplicity required many hundreds of years for its working-out. However, in contradistinction to unconditioned reflexes, that is to algorithms of fnl. cells of the sublevel I, algorithms of the level K' cells were not handing down from generation to generation in the genetic way. Only the capability of repetitions of their biorecording by means of the establishment of appropriate interneuronic links, the formation of fnl. centres and the functioning with their help was handing down biologically. Therefore an individual knowing how to make a knife out of a stone had to show how to make it to his fellow-tribesman or to his son, the latter - to his, etc.
All that was taking place on the background of the augmentation of the cerebrum's volume and the further complication of its organisation. Those sectors of the cerebrum were developing in an outstripping rate that were connected with implementation of sensory and enunciation's functions. It is necessary to emphasize, that the origin and evolution of enunciation turned out to be possible only on the base of the complicated modification of the anatomy of vocal organs, augmentation of the volume of larynx, modification of the location of tongue's root and diminution of the jaw's dimensions. In other words, speech as well as an instrument of working activity - the arm-hand - made it possible and inevitable that the socialisation of the primordial man, arose on the basis of the most complex modifications of bodily, anatomical organisation of forbears of the primordial man. The load on the cerebrum, that was going on in connection with this, had led to a situation where the cerebrum's volume of first men of the modern type - the cromanions, who appeared 30-40 thousand years ago - reached an unprecedented size (1400-1600 cm3), and its structure became essentially complicated owing to a further increase of the number of analytical-initiating fnl. centres of signal subsystems, connected with the controlling of algorithms of working activity and speaking as well as with a capability of abstract thinking. In the individual evolution of the cerebrum it is possible to single out the appearance of heterochroniums, determining the development of phylogenetically young regions at the expense of relative diminution of old ones; the cranium began to acquire more and more a human form. Thus Homo Sapiens - 'the intelligent man' was forming gradually.
The cromanion came close to a modern man not only by the physical aspect, the form of the cranium and features of face, but by displaying already a genuinely human intellect - the ability to organise collective forms of work and life, the ability to build dwellings, to manufacture garments, to make use of highly developed speech. The cromanion mastered the art of painting, created a system of rituals of behaviour and germs of a primitive religion. It was characteristic for him to have a feeling of compassion for his neighbours and concern for their welfare, that is what we call altruism.
The rate of the evolutionary process of hominids' development, which was hastening more and more, serves as one more confirmation of the dependence of the motion of Matter in quality from the motion in time: , discovered earlier by us. Throughout the entire evolutionary development of hominoid forbears of man and at the first stages of biological formation of the human being himself, the same commanding regularity was prevailing, and becoming stronger and stronger: the perfecting of the bodily, anatomical organisation was raising more and more requirements for the regulating activity of the cerebrum and already because of this putting it under the strong pressure of selection. At the same time, the cerebrum, perfecting the organisation and functions of the body, was acquiring more and more possibilities for analysis of concrete life situations and the working out of programs of conduct adequate to them, which was making the object of selection not only regulated, but also extrapolated, that is intellectual, characteristics of the cerebrum as the programming device of the highest nervous activity and an embryonic intellect. Thus, the cerebrum, which included first of all the entire aggregate spectrum of analytical-initiating fnl. centres of signal subsystems, became in the end an organ of the supreme integration of the physiological and spiritual activity of the human being as a fng. unit of systems of the level K.
Apart from the above processes the evolution of hypersystemic formations of the level K also was continuing. It was occurring in the way of fnl. differentiation and originating of fnl. cells, which differed by new fnl. algorithms, with simultaneous integration of them. Thus, fishing, cattle-breeding, agriculture arose. First handicraft appeared: the manufacture of tools and instruments, utensils, the sewing of garments. Because of this the fnl. specialisation of fng. units - men became stronger. So, some of them were perfecting more and more fnl. algorithms of fishing; others, algorithms of looking after domestic animals; the third ones, capabilities of a hunter; the fourth ones were making tools for work and household articles faster and faster and in bigger quantities; the fifth ones were displaying more skill in cultivating the land and plants. Already 7-13 thousand years ago a stone axe, a mattock, a bow, a sickle, a first loom were known to men. About 6 thousand years ago men learned to melt copper and began to manufacture tools out of metal. A plough, a copper axe, a copper sickle, etc. appeared.
Due to the fact that all people were alike biologically, that is homologous and had subsystems of their organisms created identically, they could implement almost any of the algorithms of the fnl. cells enumerated above. The difference was only that various fng. units - people could fulfil the same fnl. algorithms in a different way: some - faster and more precisely, others - less effectively. It was quite natural, owing to the fact that among the people who were permanently engaged in, for example, cultivation of the land, gradual genetic fixing of their capability in implementation of appropriate fnl. algorithms was occurring. Making use of them, they knew better than others where, how and when to work the land, what and when to plant into it, how to look after plants and when to harvest them. The people who were engaged in the manufacture of tools, knew better how to process stones, bones, wood or metal to give them this or that form required to implement this or that function, etc. The above skills of functioning were handing down from generation to generation, fixing more and more by means of genetic coding the abilities of fng. units to fulfil specific fnl. algorithms of certain series. As far as the human organism was perfecting, people's conduct was becoming more and more labile and being trained, so under the influence of conditions of bringing up and social surroundings the skills of functioning began to attain more and more various levels of development and this difference in its turn was being fixed genetically. Thus, the people's functional heterogeneity began to appear, that is various hereditary abilities to implement these or those fnl. algorithms, reflecting first of all the unidentical physiological predisposition of this or that individual structure of the cerebrum to the formation of these or those analytical-initiating fnl. centres of signal subsystems.
Primordial Communities. Simultaneously with the evolutionary development of fng. units and appearance of new fnl. cells, further structural integration of hyperorganisms of the first type was progressing by means of the perfecting of intrasystemic links between their fnl. cells. The first such a structure known after the primordial herd was a clannish community. It did not differ in complexity. All its fnl. cells were roughly equivalent, being disposed approximately at the same fnl. level and had distinctions only in the set of fnl. algorithms. However, with time among them the fnl. cells of elders were being picked out gradually more and more, which as a rule the most experienced and sufficiently influential members of a community, able in this or that way to command from others a respect for them, were occupying. Their experience was constituting the biggest stock of fnl. algorithms, fixed in their cerebra. All that assisted the transference of the fnl. cells of elders upward along the vertical of the structural organisation of hyperorganisms, putting fnl. cells of members of community remaining at the lower level under their organisational subordination. (Earlier, as we remember, the fnl. cell of the leader in a herd was being occupied by the strongest of its members physically, but not by the most wise and clever as now. This is the most principal difference between hyperorganisms of animals and men.) The fnl. cells of elders began to concentrate the first algorithms of organising and managing, that is the functions relating to the activity of a hyperorganism as it is.
A few clans, living in the same area, were forming a tribe. The whole tribe was speaking the same language, had common customs and a common fund of fnl. algorithms. The tribe was under the leadership of the council of elders, that was the first in the history embryonic organ of a collective leadership: it was distributing among tribes places for hunting and cultivation of the land, pastures for cattle, examining disputes between relatives. As the number of tribes was grew territorial armed conflicts began to arise between them more and more often, as a result of which new structural formations appeared: fnl. cells of warriors and their leaders. Gradually a neighbouring community began to replace a clannish community, giving a new push in the increase of the genofund of its members. Serving as irritants for members of a community to fulfil algorithms of these or those fnl. cells, from one side, the instinct of self-preservation and other personal associations, based on the first signal subsystem of internal self-information of an organism: hunger, cold, thirst, etc. From the other side, external irritants began to play a bigger and bigger part: instructions of elders, olders, of other members of the community, etc., inducing people to fulfil in a certain order of priority a required list of algorithms. Meanwhile the internal mechanism of activity of each fng. unit was already rather complex and constituted an approximately following chain of alternation of rapidly changing events: an irritation an analysis an association an excitement or inhibition of this or that tissue of the organism, leading to a spatial transference of some of its organs according to a required algorithm. All that was being properly coordinated in space-time.
The lack of possibility of genetic recording of hypersystemic fnl. algorithms as well as the necessity of a further perfecting of intrasystemic links between fnl. cells of hyperorganisms, led 5 thousand years ago to the appearance of a written language, which began to help to make use on a more larger scale the advantages of the second signal subsystem. Now it was no longer necessary for a man, who was in a fnl. cell of the exciter, to give a verbal signal to a man in a fnl. cell of being excited. It was enough to fix it and to hand over its symbolic imprint.
Scattered along various natural habitats tribes had their own individual ways of development, which differed one from another, as a result of that genofunds and funds of algorithms of each of them were not forming equally. It is known, that each new quality of Matter apart from the development in time gravitates as well to the development in space. Due to this, tribes with a more wide genofund and/or a fund of algorithms were uniting with tribes that had a more scanty genofund and/or a fund of algorithms (by means of placing them under their command), meanwhile a reciprocal merging of funds was occurring which was meeting the requirements of fnl. development of Matter in space-time. The result of the above process as well as the process of the evolution of hyperorganisms of the first type was an integration of fnl. cells of the level K into the most complex systemic formation, that for a state it is necessary to consider. The states of Ancient Egypt, that arose more than 5 thousand years ago, were the first known states.
Slave-Holding States. The development of the first states happened first of all through territorial expansion with simultaneous growth of fng. material in annexed neighbouring settlements. As a result, it has led to the creation of dynamically steady hyperorganisms of the first type - the slave-holding states of Egypt, India, China, Greece and Rome, the structural organisations of which were meeting the requirements of the Evolution of Matter of that time. At the same time, as a result of the influence in hypersystems of the centres with energetic and entropic factors, common for all evolving systems, with the passing of time a more and more hierarchical organisational stratification of hyperorganisms along the structural vertical was being observed, which has led to the appearance of so named fnl. pyramids. The best formed in the structural respect in slave-holding states was the pyramid of state administration (the first element of a not yet realised necessity of self-organisation), which included government, repressive and auxiliary subsystems. It was also comprehending slave-owning holdings, putting in a certain order in connections along the vertical between fnl. cells of slaves, overseers, managers and slave-owners by means of their appropriate subordination. The fnl. cells of peasants, artisans and of some other sections of the population were still very poorly associated.
Thanks to the perfecting of manufacturing tools and technological algorithms, the individual labour of peasants and cattle-breeders of that epoch became much more productive than the labour of their predecessors from primordial communities. Therefore they could already spend less labour and time to satisfy the requirements of their own organisms. But as the motion of Matter in quality leads to the permanent differentiation of functions, it is being reflected accordingly in the systemic organisation of hyperorganisms. As a consequence of this process there appeared of slave-owning holdings, the structural composition of which allowed one to force a principal mass of fng. units to be engaged in ordinary labour for a longer time than was necessary to satisfy only their own individual requirements. As a result of their surplus labour they were manufacturing products that could be utilized to keep up in a fng. condition of a few fng. units - men, free from ordinary labour, giving them an opportunity to use the consequent free time of their productive functioning for fulfilling algorithms in other fnl. cells, being organised anew while the motion of Matter in quality. It is quite natural, that the most part of the above fng. material - slaves - were occupying the lowest row of the fnl. pyramid and were in the most subordinate position after working domestic animals. Only the constant threat of beating from the side of overseers was the main irritant of their nervous system, inducing them to fulfil these or those monotonous production algorithms at limits of the physical possibilities of their organism.
Let us examine why the evolving Matter required so inhumane a systemic reorganisation at that stage of its Evolution. For this it is enough to remember that simultaneously with the structural integration of intrastate subsystems of hyperorganisms also morphogenetic correlations in the highest nervous activity of the human organism went on. It is known that many features of the nervous system and the state of mind of the human being, defining the type of his highest nervous activity, the characteristics of his individual conduct, the specific personal interests and inclinations as well as the norms and forms of his individual reaction to various outside stimuli and irritants, including those that are being defined by social surroundings, are hereditarily determined to this or that extent. Hence, already at birth people in their potential fnl. features and possibilities, in other words, in their native abilities are various, not equal. Due to that, the ensembleous organisation of neuronic structures of the CNS, the more and more cooperative activity of the enormous number of analysers and initiators of more and more perfect fnl. centres of the cerebral hemispheres laid down the beginning of the appearance and development in some individuals of the third signal subsystem of the human organism, the irritant of associated elements of which became 'a problem', being caused usually by the lack of possibility for implementation of some fnl. algorithms, more often because of the ignorance of them.
Within the period of its origination the third signal subsystem, having also the name 'the stereotype dynamic', was functioning in a so called inductive mode of operation, during which its activity had a casual character. Thus, for example, having noticed, that copper starts melting after getting into a primordial bonfire and after becoming hard acquires a new form, the man drew the algorithms of the smelting of articles out of metal. Owing to this the outline of the inductive mode of operation looks as follows: the problem a fnl. algorithm. With the development of the third signal subsystem the mode of its functioning began to have a more deductive hue, that is to have a more purposeful character. Therefore the outline of the deductive mode of operation looks like as follows: a problem the fnl. algorithm. As a result, the segments of functioning that were using the third signal subsystem in the deductive mode of operation, began to appear more and more often in the algorithmic sets of some fnl. cells. We shall name the periods corresponding to them as the functioning of the second order, which was taking sometimes all the time of the active functioning of some of fnl. cells. This kind of functioning it is necessary to distinguish from the functioning of the first order, which was inherent in the overwhelming majority of fnl. cells of ordinary labour, consisting in routine repetitions of already known fnl. algorithms, discovered earlier with the help of the third signal subsystem.
The gradual corticalisation of the appearance and later also of the finding of new fnl. algorithms raised still more the significance of the cerebrum in the systemic evolution and structural organisation of hyperorganisms of the first type. However, at that distant epoch the embryos of the third signal subsystem were appearing only in an insignificant number of the existing people, while in the main mass of them the irritants of the second signal subsystem remained as the principal dominant. But even the initial period of the development of the third signal subsystem has led to the rapid flourishing of the ancient science and art, and the elaboration of new technological processes and organisational forms. The perceiving receptors of the third signal subsystem are situated in the depths of the multi-circuit neuronic ensembles, organised into numerous heterofunctional analysers, in which complex biochemical processes take place. The centres of excitement initiated by 'a problem'-irritant are dominating in appropriate fields of the structure of the cerebrum until the moment, when 'the solution' is being associated in them, leading to a response reaction of the organism's subsystems and being accompanied by the appearance (fulfilment) of a number of new fnl. algorithms. However, a problem-irritant cannot be perceived and cause an excitement as well as become the initiator of an association of the solution in each cerebrum, but only in one of them, which has a finely arranged structural chain of accordingly tuned receptors, analysers, associators and translators, forming a clearly distinguished fnl. centre. All other variants of the formation of fnl. centres of the cerebrum as well as the ones that are analogous to the one described above, but in which one of the links in the said chain is functioning indistinctly, not speaking even about the absence of some of them, do not allow people to perceive or to analyse these or those problems, or to give out appropriate solutions translated into the language of fnl. algorithms. That is why scientists and writers, composers and artists, but first of all organisers and inventors are the people, in whom the fnl. centres of the third signal subsystem of the CNS are dominating over the fnl. centres of the second one.
At the same time, in order to function normally, an individual with the phenogenotype of an organiser should get into a fnl. cell responsible for the structural organisation of this or that part of the hyperorganism's system. This is the same as if an inventor, even occupying an appropriate fnl. cell, should have conditions and sufficient psychological potential: necessities minus possibilities a problem, in order to actualise his potential. But it does not happen always in hyperorganisms' structure that a man with certain fnl. abilities gets into a fnl. cell corresponding to his phenogenotype. A consequence of this is always a lowering to a certain extent of the efficiency of functioning of the entire system as a whole. If that was happening more rarely in the primordial herd, where the leader (later the elder) was being selected by means of Natural Selection out of the whole mass of kinsmen, then it became more frequent in slave-holding states, although at the first phases of the development their structure was meeting the requirements of the laws of Matter's motion in quality-time, as it was absorbing fnl. cells, which were appearing anew, rather easily and did not hinder their further differentiation with the isolation of the second order's cells.
The hierarchical rise of fnl. cells of slave-owners over fnl. cells of slaves and other fng. units of hyperorganisms gave them an opportunity with the help of fnl. centres of their own third signal subsystem (if they had it) or of fnl. centres of the third signal subsystem of a capable bailiff to look for new organisational forms within the bounds of their properties. The surplus of products, obtained at the expense of the additional exploitation of slaves' labour, was partly utilised also for supporting of other people - fng. units in fnl. cells of the second order, as, apart from other peculiarities, the distinguishing feature of fnl. cells of the second order is that the fng. units occupying them, functioning in one of the modes of operation of the third signal subsystem, have to spend on it practically all the time of their active functioning with sometimes a minimum result. They practically do not have time at all for functioning of the first order, that is for direct production of provisions, which forces hypersystems always to have such a structural organisation, in which fng. units of fnl. cells of the second order are being supported as if at the expense of the results of the functioning of fng. units in fnl. cells of the first order. And indeed, the ancient sculptors, artists and jewellers, philosophers and poets, senators and military chiefs, but first of all organisers, inventors and managers, could not function efficiently in their fnl. cells, if instead of that they had every day from the morning till the evening to cultivate the land or to look after domestic animals. At the same time, the land-workers and cattle-breeders did not have enough free time of active functioning as well to extend its segments considerably for fnl. algorithms of the second order.
As it is known, each human being with a various grade of the genetic determination of his fnl. features at adequate life conditions inherits a genomical DNA with the molecular mass of
1.8 1012daltons, that is corresponding to about 3 million genes. Nevertheless, the phenogenotype of people that was forming during the ancient epoch, in view of a further deepening of the differentiation of individual aggregate spectrums of fnl. centres of the CNS' signal subsystems, was specialising more and more, making different in various people the abilities to fulfil these or those fnl. algorithms. Owing to this, some people could play better musical instruments, but knew worse how to look after domestic animals; others were manufacturing pottery well enough, but did not have eurhythmics for dancing; the third ones were painting pictures in a good manner or writing verse, but were badly adapted to fulfil fnl. algorithms of a peasant, etc. Thus, the differentiation of fnl. cells and the widening of the summarised spectrum of their fnl. algorithms was leading, despite all the biological universality of the human organism, to the genotypical specialisation of individual aggregate spectrums of fnl. centres of the cerebrum's signal subsystems, that in its turn reflected on the professional orientation of fng. units - people. By the same reason, peasants and cattle-breeders, besides supporting life in their own organisms, had to produce with their work-life sources for keeping up in the mode of active functioning the fng. units that were filling in fnl. cells of the second order.
With the motion of Matter along the coordinates of quality-time finally the moment came when the systemic organisation of the slave-holding state stopped meeting the required rate of growth of quantity of new fnl. cells, filled in with appropriate fng. units, and first of all, the ratio of growth of the quantity of fnl. cells of the second order to the quantity of fnl. cells of the first order. The reason for this was that in the states of this type the belonging to some estate, that is an appropriate cell of a social stay (functioning), was handed down practically only in a a hereditary way, owing to which a man, who had a genotype with some dominating fnl. centre of the third signal subsystem, but was born in a slave's family, had to remain in the fnl. cell of a slave, not having the possibility to use in full his fnl. abilities. Instead of that he had to fulfil fnl. algorithms of the first order not corresponding to his genotype, to what he was resisting organically. At the same time a fnl. cell of a slave-owner, who was nominally the organiser of all works in his ownership, could be often occupied by a man with the fnl. centre for organising (of the third signal subsystem), which was weakly developed or not formed with him at all. As a result of that he was incapable of implementing properly the algorithms of an organiser, consisting, as it is known, in the systematical determination of an optimal structure of fnl. cells of a given hyperorganism and an interlink between them, establishing an optimal list of fnl. algorithms for each fnl. cell as well as the filling in of every cell with an appropriate fng. unit able to fulfil fixed algorithms. The said disparities were leading more and more often to a re-polarization of the biosocial potential in hyperorganisms, when from one side a fnl. cell of a slave-owner - the organiser was being occupied by a fng. unit - a man with undeveloped fnl. centres of the third signal subsystem, thus becoming a parasitizing fng. unit of the hypersystem, while fng. units - people with the genotype of a higher order were occupying one or several fnl. cells of his slaves. The structural deviations that were arising owing to this, were bringing in some situations to insurrections of slaves. However, even in the case of a success, the insurrectionists did not know any other structural self-organisation of fnl. cells except the division to slave-owners and slaves. Therefore a slave who won a victory, was seeking only to occupy the fnl. cell of a slave-owner and to make former slave-owners his slaves. Unassociated peasants and artisans were not practically involved in these structural shake ups at all.
The ontogenetic evolution of the human being and his morpho-physiological differentiation are submitting to the principle of recapitulation and were accomplished under the control of a genetic program coded in 46 chromosomes, located in the core of each somatic organic cell of any normal man irrespective of his racial, national or class identity. The principles and mechanisms of controlling the processes of biosynthesis in the human being do not differ from such in organisms of the third generation, and the handing down of hereditary information from parents to posterity is being comprehended by the general theory of heredity. Coming from the fact that a chromosomal genofund of a genotype is formed out of the genomical code of reduced information of gametes of both parents, then it is not always that a formed specialised fnl. ability of one of the parents after being handed down is prevailing in the genotype of their posterity. Owing to this in a family of a musician a son may be born, unable to study music; a brave warrior can have a puny son-coward; stingy parents - extravagant children; a good organiser - a mediocre performer; a hard-working and energetic father - a passive and lazy son, etc.
Likewise, parents with nothing notable in features can give birth to a child, endowed with a not ordinary spectrum of fnl. centres of the cerebrum's signal subsystems, capable of implementing exceptionally well one of the sets of narrow-specialised fnl. algorithms. Due to this, equally with the growth of the number of fnl. cells of the second order, that were becoming blocked up with parasitizing fng. units, there was taking place a simultaneous loss more and more of the stimulus of functioning in fnl. cells of the first order, as the irritant, that was laid in the foundation of operation of slave-holding states - the threat to use physical violence, because of the phenogenotypical evolution of the man in progress, was ceasing more and more to yield efficiently required results, amounted in the increase of manufacture of surplus product by every fng. unit of the first order. Moreover, the irritation of the CNS, being caused by it, instead of generating the required excitement of subsystems of the organism of fng. units - slaves to fulfil some algorithms of the first order led more and more often to their state of stress, hampering normal functioning, that was having the opposite effect. Therefore a slave, who had the genotype with activated third signal subsystem, opposed with all vigour to fulfil the fnl. algorithms of the first order required from him and, having the abilities to make new kind of tools, did not want to work on someone else's plantations, using obsolete implements.
Thus, the slave-holding inheritance of a limited number of fnl. cells of the second order, and first of all of cells of management, from the one side, and the growth of a number of individuals with activated third signal subsystem, from the other side, have led to the situation, where the structure of a slave-holding state gradually was becoming a bigger and bigger drag on the motion of Matter in quality-time, and it became the main cause of the necessity of its reorganisation.
The period of existence of ancient slave-holding states, that were in their time a significant step forward in the evolution of the human society by comparison with primordial communities, lasted more than 5 thousand years and ended in the middle of the first thousand years AD. By that time Humanity already had over 230 mln. simultaneously living people. From this moment the epoch of hyperorganisms of the second type came, which had the systemic organisation of so named feudal states.
Feudal States. Their appearance was characterised by processes of systemic reorganisation of the human society, affecting, as a rule, the entire structure of hypersystems. By that time the productive power of fng. units' functioning in cells of the first order of weakly associated peasants and artisans had increased considerably. It became possible thanks to the results of episodic in the depth of thousands of years of the ancient period efforts of those yet not many then fng. units with active third signal subsystem, who were assisting in the improvement of working tools and instruments, technological algorithms, extensive use of fnl. abilities of domestic animals, etc. As a result of the above named processes the formation of new fnl. pyramids of the society took place integrated on the basis of fnl. cells of peasants and artisans becoming associated more and more. The structure of these pyramids began to be comprised of a much bigger quantity of fnl. cells of the second order, owing to which the probability of getting into them of people with active third signal subsystem increased. The enlarging of distinctions, that defined the sets of fnl. algorithms of industrial cells from the agricultural ones was imposing its imprint on peculiarities of the formation of appropriate fnl. pyramids. So, if in farming in their foundation there was a property of land, then in industry the main role began to play the ownership for means of production, which were becoming more and more complex. The augmentation of the number of fnl. cells of the second order, being filled in with appropriate fng. units with a more developed phenogenotype, allowed the activation still more of the process of growth of the productive power of functioning in all fnl. cells of hyperorganisms, including the cells of the first order, that in its turn was automatically assisting a further augmentation of the number of filled in fnl. cells of the second order, hereby meeting the requirements of the motion of Matter in quality-time.
Thus, the above said reciprocal dependence became a determining criterion of the level of development of the civilization of this or that society, since the more
1) the quantity of fnl. cells of the second order with regard to the cells of the first order is,
2) the aggregate phenogenofund of fng. units filling them in is,
3) the coefficient of congruity of fng. units to fnl. cells (or fnl. cells to fng. units) is,
the higher the level of civilization of a given society is, the more optimal its structure and the more efficient its systemic organisation. And indeed, in slave-holding states the number of fnl. cells of the first order (slaves and so forth) was considerably bigger in comparison with a relatively small quantity of fnl. cells of slave-owners and other cells of the second order. In the structure of hyperorganisms of the second type, the number of fnl. cells of the second order increased sharply, the coefficient of congruity of progressing in fnl. abilities fng. units to permanently differentiating fnl. cells, and especially to the cells of the second order, became higher. At the same time, the differentiating of cells which was occurring, constituted their specialisation by the availability of rarefied sets of fnl. algorithms being comprised by them. This process was accompanied by a further integration of hypersystems and required the strengthening of the interlink between multiplying diverse cells. In this connection the exchange between fng. units of the results of their functioning in cells became more and more important.
With time the mediatory function during interchange fell on money, which as a universal means of payment, and afterwards of accumulation, was becoming as well a universal irritant of the third signal subsystem, having developed already to a certain extent in most members of the human society of that time. An excitement of the CNS initiated by it through the most complex reflex chain was generating such a state of the organism of fng. units, which was assisting to a maximum exploitation, including also a self-exploitation, of his abilities to implement these or those fnl. algorithms. The insertion by that reason into the sets of algorithms, practically of all cells of any order, of the segments of functioning, that were loading the third signal subsystem of a man, however, was leading to an intensification of the genotypical and social stratification of the society, nonetheless it was serving a sufficient psychological stimulus for the normal functioning of units in the structures of hypersystems of the second type, including feudal peasants and artisans. A bigger and bigger surplus product created by them ensured an increase in the quantity of fnl. cells of the second order, that in its turn led to their further differentiation and integration, which has led to the genesis of new superstructural pyramids, to which it is necessary to attribute the church, military, judiciary and others. The government pyramid also continued perfecting.
Meanwhile, the further evolution of the systemic organisation of the cerebrum and CNS of the human organism has led to the moment, when at a certain stage of the individual development the most complex microstructures of some of them became capable of responding to a new kind of irritation - 'a problem in the future'. The excitement of fields of the cerebrum in some cases, generated at the same time as a result of the most complex chain of a biochemical process that was occurring in it, was assisting the appearance of appropriate 'solutions'. The structures of the cerebrum, participating in this highest reflex activity of the alive substance of Matter, underlay the formation of the fourth signal subsystem of the human organism, which, as the third one as well, it would be more correct to name a 'solving-organising' subsystem.
It was quite natural, that at that time only an initial formation of the said subsystem was taking place, which comprised the development of all its component microparts, responsible for the implementation of functions in the following sequence: the perception of an irritation its appreciating analysis the association of possible solutions their appreciation the issuing of a final solution of 'a problem at present or in the future'. An unsatisfactory functioning through any reason of though one of the microstructures of the cerebrum, responsible for any link in the chain of this material process, having the biochemical basis, led to a decrease in the efficiency of the work of the entire given signal subsystem as a whole. At the same time at the hypersystemic level of organisation the segments of so named 'functioning of the third order' began to appear in the sets of algorithms of individual fnl. cells more and more often, becoming the embryo of the contemporary management and planning, meanwhile, the higher along the structural vertical of a pyramid a given fnl. cell was located, the bigger this segment was in it. The biggest part it was reaching in the cells of tops of pyramids. As a material providing of the functioning of the third order could serve only the nervous-psychical activity, that was carried out with the help of the third and fourth signal subsystems of the human organism's cerebrum, and therefore only fng. units with the most developed third and fourth signal subsystems were capable of implementing well the algorithms of this functioning.
The bigger and bigger increase of the time of aggregate functioning of the second and third order in fnl. cells assisted to a further systemic organisation of the human society, to the growth of its productive power, flourishing of science and art. A further differentiation of more complicated artisans' technological processes into separate operations became an important factor of the growth of potential possibilities of the productive functioning. Established on this basis manufactories and workshops became embryos of modern factories and plants, a cradle of machinery production. All this was leading to a sharp augmentation of the number of fnl. cells of the second and third order, their bigger integration. As a result, in the evolution of the human society both forming systems processes, going simultaneously, activated some more. One of them, as it is known, is determinated by the influence of social structuralism and is characterised by the stratification of fnl. cells over pyramids' levels in accordance with sets of algorithms of functioning. The second process is conditioned by the action of laws of the phenogenodynamics of fng. units, according to which, depending on the degree of the development of their third and fourth signal subsystems, they are fit to a certain extent to implement algorithms in the cells of the first to the third orders. At the same time, the higher the degree of an individual development of the highest signal subsystems of a given organism is, the higher the order of functioning it is capable of carrying out effectively.
Schematically, this process is reminiscent of the order of movement of molecules of water, when the molecules, having a higher temperature, are rising to a certain level, while the molecules with a lower temperature are going down to a certain level. Like this, for an effective functioning of fng. units - people with the presence of developed signal subsystems, it is also necessary to have the conditions of fnl. cells of the appropriate level. Equally, for a resulting presence in structures of hypersystems of fnl. cells of the second and third order, their undoubted filling in with fng. units having the maximum developed highest signal subsystems of the organism is required. History proves that only after the fulfilment of the above said conditions of the combination of fng. units and fnl. cells a state of a 'social-dynamic balance in hypersystems of the human society' can be reached, and it can be named with confidence as a relative 'limit of its systemic evolution'.
The feudal relations, being the basis of the organisation of hyperorganisms of the second type, which were determining the mode of the filling in of functional cells of public structures of that time with fng. units, at a certain stage of the evolution of the society began to restrain its progress, as well as the motion of Matter in quality-time itself. The reason for this was that only fng. units out of the nobility were entitled to occupy fnl. cells of the second and third order of pyramids, while the lower stratum of fnl. cells of the first order were being occupied only by people out of a lower estate. Despite a better fnl. preparation in the nobility, even those out of its fng. units, who were having a sufficiently developed highest signal subsystem of the organism, could not always hand down in a genetic way to its posterity a capability of properly implementing algorithms of the second and third order, due to which among them a share of units with a weakly developed highest signal subsystem was growing, as no one of them wished to move (to go down) voluntarily into the cells of the first order corresponding to the level of their fnl. abilities. Simultaneously, owing to the evolution of the cerebrum being in progress as well as to appropriate mutational deviations, individuals with well-developed highest signal subsystems were being born periodically among fng. units of the low estate. But they could not get into fnl. cells of a high order of the upper part of pyramids, as these cells were being handed down by fng. units of the nobility from generation to generation by inheritance. All that was leading to the violation of the laws of phenogenodynamics, and as a consequence, to the loss of the social-dynamic balance of society. Therefore such cases were occurring more and more often, when a fng. unit - nobleman, having inherited a fnl. cell of a high order and not having sufficiently developed highest subsystems of the cerebrum, was not in a position to implement effectively appropriate algorithms of functioning, assisting by that to flourishing of the fnl. mimicry. At the same time individuals of a low estate born with an actively expressed highest signal subsystem, not having an opportunity to display their capabilities, had to fulfil simplified algorithms of the first order, which was affecting in a depressing way their psyche as well as their desire to function in general. Exactly in this way standard situations were arising, when upper crust could not and lower classes under the influence of stress did not want to function in their fnl. cells of hyperstructures.
The situations, at which the biosocial potential reached big negative significances, were repeatedly leading people to insurrections. However, having got though a temporary success, the leaders of insurrectionists immediately declared themselves to be kings, that is were copying the hypersystemic structure existing then.
It happened also that fnl. cells of a high order were being occupied by fng. units out of the nobility with a greatly activated highest signal subsystem. Though the correspondence of their fnl. capabilities to fnl. cells occupied by them was of much benefit to the systemic development of many states, nonetheless such combinations were rather rare exceptions than a rule. And the number of talented fng. units of low estates left anonymous in fnl. cells of the first order of hyperorganisms of the second type will remain unknown forever.
Undoubtedly, the systemic organisation of the society of the feudal period, as of the slave-holding before, has fulfilled its historic mission in the cause of the evolution of Matter in general and of the human civilization, in particular. It is enough to compare the levels of development of productive powers, cultural potential and biogenetical possibilities of man at the beginning of these epochs and at their end to be convinced of it. However, having existed for more than one thousand years, the hyperorganisms of the second type with the feudal principle of the filling in of fnl. cells with fng. units had to give up their place to hyperorganisms of the third type with a so named capitalistic principle of filling in.
Capitalistic Period. The beginning of the new epoch was marked by a series of bourgeois revolutions, which occurred in those countries where the biosocial potential was reaching the most negative significances, and the former obsolete organisational principle of the filling in of fnl. cells with fng. units did not meet more and more a growing level of the intellectual development of nations. The fnl. meaning of revolutions consisted in the systemic shake up of all fng. units of some relatively closed hypersystem, accompanied by forcible vacating of fnl. cells of upper parts of its pyramids. The fng. units, who usually did not like to leave the above said cells, were exposed to a physical extermination. As a result of this painful, but essential for the general progress of human civilization process of the entire reorganisation of hypersystems, the estate-castes' verges, which were separating some groups of fng. units from others and were the principal obstacle of proper filling in of fnl. cells of hyperstructures, were gradually being erased. Owing to this, every individual had a much broader opportunity than before, depending on the level of his intellect's development to fill in this or that cell at any level of the vertical of fnl. pyramids.
The hyperstructures of the second type destroyed during bourgeois revolutions were requiring the creation of new forms of social integration. Various organisational problems that appeared in connection with this were assisting an augmentation of the number of individuals with an active highest signal subsystem of the cerebrum, which was specialising precisely on this range of specific irritants. Their active functioning was named afterwards 'the organisational activity', which constituted some kind of creative work in forming optimum structures of fnl. cells of various hyperorganisms and filling them in with appropriate fng. units (the selection and placing of personnel). Formulated as a result of the activity of bourgeois organisers the intrastructural regulation of public functioning, fixed by new legal standards, enabled the regular access of fng. units with appropriate phenogenotype into cells of upper levels of fnl. pyramids, which in its turn has led to the extension of the share of effective implementation of algorithms of a high order.
The active attraction of highly intellectual fng. units into cells of upper levels of various pyramids raised the capability of the cerebrum to respond to a more broad range of problems, after which a further differentiation of fnl. centres of its highest signal subsystems by groups of problems-irritants followed, during which its perceiving receptors of problems, sharply responding to some certain problems-irritants and communicating an arisen excitement in a necessary direction along the structure of the cerebrum, at the same time remained indifferent to a great number of others. All that was telling in a favourable way on the augmentation of the number of inventors in industry and scientists in various branches of science, for whom it now became important to get as a fng. unit not only to a required level along the vertical, but also into an appropriate fnl. cell along the horizontal of fnl. pyramids. As a result of their fruitful functioning the rapid technical re-equipment of production pyramids was being realised at the expense of a broader and broader use of various machines and mechanisms as well as of extensive utilisation of the power of wind, falling water, and afterwards of reactions of combustion of coal, petroleum and natural gas. Underlying operations of inorganic structural formations - machines, these highly effective sources of energy allowed to free, substituting them in fnl. cells of the first order, a huge quantity of fng. units - people, whose costly energy of biochemical reactions, going in tissues of muscles of their organisms, was serving before that as a power supply source for the fulfilment of many appropriate algorithms of the lower order. Relieved of low-intellectual functioning in cells of the first order the fng. units were filling in with more willingness cells of a higher level, assisting the augmentation of their number. All that was meeting the laws of the motion of Matter in quality-time to a certain extent.
Caused by a differentiation of cells a further integration of the society led not only to the structural growth of then existing fnl. pyramids, but to the multiplying of their number. The optimality of formation and reconstruction of each pyramid as well as the filling in of its cells with appropriate fng. units was entirely dependent on the organisational capabilities of the highest signal subsystem of the cerebra of individuals, who were filling in cells of administration of an appropriate pyramid, while the conditions of private business undertakings, inherent to the capitalistic system of relations, were influencing favourably to a certain extent on the organisational rivalry. To newly established fnl. pyramids should be attributed so important, as a bank, which exerted through control over the operation of finances a certain influence on the development of these or other branches of economy.
Simultaneously the evolution of sections of the highest signal subsystems of the man's cerebrum was continuing, increasing the efficiency of his functioning and acquiring the capability to the irritation on the enlarged list of stimuli, including such as promotion up along the vertical of a pyramid, an improvement of his welfare, attainment of popularity and glory, and others. The stimulus of promotion constituted a developing searching instinct of the individual, facilitating him to find a fnl. cell in the structural depth of pyramids, corresponding by the set of algorithms to his fnl. abilities. The diversification of kinds of stimulation of functioning in each cell while keeping money recompense as basic, was being realised with their simultaneous uniting into diverse combinations, from the optimality of which a degree of excitability of appropriate subsystems of the cerebrum of every fng. unit was depending. The broadening at the same time of a variety of sections of perception of the highest signal subsystems with the specialisation of them by groups of problems-irritants had as its basis also a self-defending function, as the excitement of the CNS from the whole range of ever-increasing problems would have led otherwise to the destruction of the delicate mechanism of creative functioning.
Meanwhile, the fine nuancing of the above said specialisation of subsystems of the cerebrum to a certain kind of irritants and stimulators did not have any outward distinguishing features and therefore could be defined only during the process of functioning by its results. Owing to this, at first the revealing and selection of the most individuals fitted for a given kind of functioning were carried out by means of the competition, later - with the help of various psychological tests.
As a result of the hypersystemic reorganisation reached by humanity, it has achieved for a hundred and fifty years' duration of functioning of hyperorganisms of the third type such progress, which exceeded all the attainments obtained before during a thousand years of the feudal epoch. The evolution of these self-regulating hypersystems went on up to nowadays and its rate met to a certain extent the laws of the motion of Matter in quality-time, but the capitalistic (in the initial phase of its development) principle of the filling in of pyramids' fnl. cells with fng. units naturally could not become the summit of the systemic organisation of human society. The reason for that was lying in its foundation, that is in the private property for capital, which was handed down as inheritance without the taking into account of phenogenotypical peculiarities of the posterity, directly influencing on fnl. abilities of every new generation of fng. units. Because of this the more and more capital capacious means of production of the developing industry were creating now and then an insuperable barrier between fnl. cells of their proprietors-managers and fng. units - individuals with a highest signal subsystem of the cerebrum specialised on organisation and management, but who did not own the capital. This barrier was not less insuperable also during the filling in with fng. units of the fnl. cells of governments' pyramids of capitalist countries, where very expensive election campaigns as well as the lack of the scientifically founded selection of candidates by their fnl. abilities and preparations were leading at times to the election of accidental people from propertied ones or from those, who had their patronage, to important public posts. But even a most prominent lawyer, a representative of military or business circles, or even a party functioner cannot always be a good minister or a vice-president. However, if during the period of feudal separation and patriarchality the cases of the filling in of upper cells of governments' pyramids with low-effective fng. units had little influence on the development of a hypersystem as a whole, then now at a higher level of integration of social organisms even low-efficient functioning though of one of the fng. units on the top of pyramids could affect the process of social development ruinously, and the higher cell this unproductive fng. unit was occupying, the bigger the negative effect he began to make.
Thus, the availability of excessive freedom in capitalistic comprehension, from one side, making difficult a further systemic integration of the society as well as the private possession and inheritance of capital, from the other side, began to stand in the way of a further hypersystemic development of the human civilization and to hamper the motion of Matter in quality-time. Owing to this, the capitalist social structures of the initial period were in a fever from time to time because of social-economic shocks, being determinated by the action of the laws of phenogenodynamics and accompanied by such unhealthy phenomena as various crises and slumps in economy, bankruptcy, growth of inflation, lock-outs, chronic unemployment. To keep a social-dynamic balance in capitalist hypersystems of the early period such extreme measures of self-regulation of this formation started to be used more and more often as a nationalisation of some sectors of economy, which signalled of the incapability of previous leaders of administration of appropriate governing pyramids to organise their normal functioning and development. Both the competing tendencies of capitalist integration of the initial period - monopolisation and nationalisation - along with the private initiative of decentralised sectors of economy, however, were not in a position to provide a full hypersystemic homeostasis in appropriate countries while there existed in them the possession and inheritance together with capital of fnl. cells of organisers as well and a lack of sufficient understanding of the necessity as well as a scientifically founded methodology of filling in these cells with the maximum appropriate fng. units, that is with those having a necessary spectrum of fnl. centres of the cerebrum's highest signal subsystems, directed on solving problems of the organisation of a given hyperorganism. At the same time the said problems ought to be its permanent irritants.
Period of Modern Hyperorganisation. All the foregoing has created pre-requisites for the appearance of hyperorganisms of the fourth type, the birth of which coincided with the socialist revolution in Russia. The ideas of a social reconstruction of the society arose long before that in the advanced minds of individuals–theorists, living in the most developed countries of western Europe, however, they arose not quite by chance, but were dictated by the course of the Evolution of Matter itself, by the action of its laws. And the reason why the first hypersystemic shake up of such kind happened in Russia in 1917 can be explained by the fact that due to patriarchal-monarchic foundations turned out in this country a significant delay took place in the appearance and multiplying of hyperorganisms of the third type. The belated February bourgeois revolution could not reduce the biosocial potential of a big negative value accumulated by that time, since the new and weak bourgeois stratum had not yet promoted (or had not acquired) capable organisers. However, among fng. units of the lower estate there were a significant number of them. Therefore exactly they, united in a single party with rigid discipline and led by individuals with new organisational approaches, became creators of hypersystemic organisms of a new type, in the organisation of which a socialist principle of the filling in of fnl. cells with fng. units was laid: from everyone - by (his fnl.) abilities.
The abolition of private property for capital eliminated the legal basis of handing down as an inheritance as well as the possibility of occupying fnl. cells of the upper part of pyramids for any arbitrarily long period of time. Only in a socialist state, as it was intended by the theorists of socialism, should each citizen have the right fixed in the constitution to occupy any fnl. cell of any level of any fnl. pyramid without the right to inherit it to his posterity. Thus, the last legal obstacle to filling in fnl. cells with any fng. units maximally corresponding to them by fnl. capabilities was removed in hyperorganisms of the fourth type. The possibility itself of the free placing of each fng. unit depending on its fnl. spectrum into an appropriate fnl. cell at any level along both the vertical and the horizontal of pyramids met fully the laws of phenogenodynamics and assisted in keeping up the social-dynamic balance of a hypersystem.
The ideas of socialism and social reorganisation of the society became popular not only in Russia. Under the influence of laws of the Evolution of Matter they thrilled and excited the minds of a significant part of the population in many countries of the world, including those with a developed infrastructure of systems of hyperorganisms. Therefore, revolutionary transformations also affected many western countries. However, taking into consideration that the basis of their state hypersystems was constituted of already quite developed hyperorganisms of the third type, that for that time were still meeting the then requirements of the motion of Matter in quality-time, more or less serious political changes did not take place in those countries. At the same time, the evolutionary need in these transformations has influenced greatly the process of accelerated development of hyperorganisms of the third type of their hypersystems into hyperorganisms of the fourth type. It can be illustrated by many facts. To them we can attribute a consecutive growth of the stratum of hired professional managers, and a growth of the number of joint-stock companies and companies, managed jointly by a few joint proprietors, and restrictions while inheriting capital, and strengthening of bank and state regulation of industrial and agricultural production, and many other indications, which assisted to a more qualitative filling in of fnl. cells of social pyramids with appropriate fng. units. All this led to a reduction of the negative values of the social biopotential and assisted in keeping up a social-dynamic balance in hypersystems of those countries.
Thus, starting from the first third of the twentieth century, humanity, the numbers of which by that time already exceeded 1.6 billion people, became a witness and a direct participant of the global, never before seen systemic integration of hyperorganisms of the fourth type, which was requiring a further and more precise combination of functional abilities of fng. units with algorithms being fulfilled of fnl. cells occupied by them, simultaneously raising the degree of the negative effect from their improper functioning. In this connection, as never before, the role of the organising process increased and became not a solitary episodic act, but the permanent creative activity of hundreds of thousand of fng. units - people, provided with the specialised phenogenotype.
The specific kind of functioning, which the organising process is, in the present-day understanding should accomplish the following tasks, which it is possible to express as the ability:
1. To define as precisely as possible:
a) the whole range of 'problems for solution', that a hypersystem has at a given moment in any field of its functioning - from abstract-scientific to utilitarian-social;
b) approaching (being expected) with time 'problems of the future' and being planned in prospect 'targets of development';
2. To divide up a given range of problems and targets by spatial-qualitative-temporal indications and to attach them to appropriate hyperorganisms. No one problem should be left without attention or appropriate attachment;
3. To form optimal structures of fnl. cells of all hyperorganisms of a given system in accordance with the list of problems and targets, raised before each hyperorganism for their solution. To re-form permanently the hyperstructures as the spectrum of problems and targets renews;
4. To determinate a set of algorithms for each fnl. cell, conditioning it by the differentiating of functions within the framework of a given hyperorganism. To revise regularly the sets of algorithms as the re-forming of hyperorganisms' structures is going in accordance with the dynamics of the forming of problems and targets;
5. To fill in fnl. cells with fng. units appropriate by their fnl. abilities, having specific spectrums of fnl. centres of the cerebrum's highest signal subsystems, specialised on irritation from a part of problems, being put before a given fnl. cell, and on their effective solution (selection and placing of personnel);
6. To establish favourable conditions for the normal functioning of all fng. units in their fnl. cells as well as to provide control on their proper functioning;
7. As far as individual fnl. abilities of every fng. unit are changing in ontogenesis, to provide in due time their transferences to other, more corresponding to them fnl. cells with the simultaneous filling in of the cells, that became free, with new, not less specialised fng. units.
Thus, in the organising process it is possible to pick out the two mutually coordinated trends:
1. To form an optimal social hyperstructure of fnl. cells, maximally responding to the dynamics of problems and targets requiring solution.
2. To allocate and assign the whole existing mass of heterogeneous by their fnl. abilities fng. units in hyperorganisms' fnl. cells, corresponding to a specialised phenogenotype of each of them.
It is quite natural that only the people who have fnl. centres of the cerebrum's highest signal subsystems tuned up accordingly to 'the problems of organising', became able to carry out the colossal, still increasing organisational work, and that only such people could function effectively in fnl. cells of organisers-managers, which every hyperorganism should have in a sufficiently reasonable quantity. Moreover, the organisers themselves should be well organised into a single fnl. pyramid which was reflected in the history by the establishment of various political parties. At the same time, taking into consideration that individuals who have specific spectrums of the highest signal subsystems' fnl. centres, directed to the solving of organisational problems, constitute only a part of the self-employed active population of each generation of humanity, it is necessary to seek them out constantly and, depending on the level of the development and an individual specific character of their fnl. centres' spectrums, to fill in with them appropriate fnl. cells of a pyramid of the organisational functioning, to load at a maximum their fnl. abilities, meanwhile assisting in every possible way their normal activity. The process of the filling in of organisers' fnl. cells with fng. units in no way should have a stochastic (incidental) character, because a casual entering them by inappropriate fng. units always leads to their unauthoritativity and passiveness, caused by the lack of irritability to problems and targets, that a fnl. cell has for solution, or to their false activity, that gives rise to wrong, burdensome for corresponding hyperorganism, decisions. All this reduces the efficiency of functioning of a hypersystem as a whole, leads to the weakening of its fnl. potential and the growing, because of the violation of laws of the phenogenodynamics, of the negative value of the social biopotential. Finally, the result of this is an augmentation of the number of unsolved problems and targets being ignored, causing a destabilisation of the social-dynamic balance of any hypersystem.
On applying all that to the theory of the socialist society, it is necessary to emphasize that objective laws attributed to it were and are the laws of not only functioning, but of a further social evolution as well. Therefore it is necessary to regard every really socialist enterprise or establishment not as an economic mechanism, which emasculates out of it the dialectical content and deprives it beforehand of an opportunity to develop, but as a hyperorganism, which is a permanently developing relatively isolated for fulfilment of some common function system of fnl. cells, filled with appropriate fng. units, closely connected between themselves by intrasystemic intercells fnl. relations. Such an approach to socialist organisation in countries, which would have entered the way of construction of the socialism, could eliminate all that which was hampering their development. However, no full understanding and/or underestimation of this circumstance at a certain stage of the socialist development, that lasted only several decades in a few countries, has led first of all to the distortion of the processes of formation and functioning of the most perfect hyperorganisms of the fourth type and as a consequence to infringements of the phenogenodynamics' laws as a whole. Moreover, even the filling in of the uppermost fnl. cells (of state and party leadership) of these social hypersystems ceased to meet the present-day requirements of the hypersystemic formation and development, as a result of which this development at a certain moment has halted, but the socialist society itself began rolling down gradually to passiveness and stagnation more and more. All that arose on the thickening background of the social-scientific illiteracy, dogmatism, scholasticism, incompetence and militant bureaucracy of the most part of ruling leaders. Finally, the socialist experiment in its pure form, not meeting any more the requirements of the motion of Matter in quality-time, under the influence of the laws of social evolution gradually ended in the last third of the twentieth century in most countries where it was started. So, the foretold long ago convergence of the two social systems has entered into the final phase, dividing the human civilisation practically only into two main categories - hypersystemically developed countries (North America, most of Europe, Japan, Australia, etc.) and undeveloped ones (Africa, most of Asia, most of Latin America, etc.). The Laws of the Evolution of Matter, of its Dialectics proved to be victorious again. They were and remain the criterion of correctness of the direction of motion and evolution of the human formation. Only they dictated and continue to dictate the character of actions for getting over all available problems and for achieving all planned aims. Therefore each existing nation or a contemporary state in order to meet the requirements of the 'actual' time should undoubtedly conform to the laws of hypersystemic organisation and phenogenodynamics, following from the Laws of the Evolution of Matter, by means of permanent perfection of the composition of intrastructural inter-cells' links of their every hyperorganism, enrichment of the aggregate phenogenofund and ensuring the maximum correspondence of fng. units to the fnl. cells occupied by them. Only such an approach can allow these nations and states to create a perfect system of up-to-date hyperorganisms of the fourth type and with their help to increase sharply their scientific-technical and social-economic potential.
In present-day geopolitics, reflecting opposing organisational tendencies in human society, in this connection the scientific-systemic prevision acquires more and more significance. A correct prognostication of the political situation in any separately taken country and various regions of the world will depend more and more on the knowledge of those, who need it, of how to estimate precisely, to model a hypersystemic situation turned out in these regions as well as to predict its transformation in accordance with the requirements of the organisational development in the nearest future.
Analysing the tendencies prevailing during thousands of years and particularly during the latest decades in the organisational development of hyperorganisms and the factors influencing the keeping up of the state of social homeostasis in them in the presence of a well-known row of variable quantities, it is possible to deduce a certain sense of mutual dependence between them, characterized by the so named 'coefficient of fnl. efficiency of systemic organisation' of a given hypersystem (Kf.e.s.o.).
Kf.e.s.o. = Kc.p.t. + Ks.c. + Kph.g.f. + Ku./c.
where Kc.p.t. - the coefficient of comprehension of 'problems' and 'targets', characterising the comprehending by solutions of available problems and planned targets as well as the attachment of each newly appearing problem or target to this or that hyperorganism.
Ks.c. - the coefficient of systemic composition, characterising the optimality of formation of fnl. pyramids and the dynamics of their re-forming as the spectrum of problems being solved is changing.
Kph.g.f. - the coefficient of aggregate phenogenofund.
The process of 'brains drain' from some countries to others leads to an appropriate alteration in these hypersystems of precisely this coefficient. But the main factor having an influence on its magnitude remains as previously the level of development of science and public education in a given state itself. There, where the rate of growth of this coefficient is behind the average magnitude or comes down, a phenogenetic degeneration of a nation or a state is taking place.
Ku./c. - the coefficient of corresponding fng. units to fnl. cells and of fnl. cells to fng. units, characterising the level of organisational-personnel work.
All four components of Kf.e.s.o. of hypersystems are striving to increase. In historical retrospection this coefficient is much lower at every earlier formation, than at subsequent ones, but higher than at preceding ones. Thus, Kf.e.s.o. is the index of the level of civilization and systemic integration, attained by this or that hypersystem. (Nowadays it is possible to judge indirectly about its relative magnitude even by the structure of foreign trade of this or that state.) Therefore the bigger its magnitude, the higher the level of the systemic organisation of a given hypersystem and the longer the period of the state of homeostasis will be in it. Those hypersystems would have the future, that will have the highest rate of growth of this summary coefficient, giving a proper attention to the increase of each of its components. And it is possible to achieve this only by correctly using the deductions of modern scientific theories remembering at the same time the words of the famous Russian mathematician N.I. Lobachevskij who said that: "... Everything in the nature is subject to a measurement, everything can be counted".
These are all reasons to suppose that the hypersystemic organisation of Matter is striving in the end for such a dynamically stable state, at which all fng. units - people being born will occupy only those fnl. cells of hyperstructures that correspond the most to their phenogenotypical characteristics. Exactly in this the Laws of Dialectics of Matter, how strange it can be, are harmonious with the communist principle of the filling in of fnl. cells with fng. units: "From everyone - by fnl. abilities, to everyone - by fnl. requirements", that is the combining of fnl. abilities with fnl. requirements for each fng. unit can happen only while filling in with it of an appropriate fnl. cell. Therefore, having ruled out the pseudo-communist regimes, it is still too early to reject completely the communist ideas or reveries themselves as such, as their appearance was not casual at all.
One way or another, but seriously speaking, it is necessary to bear in mind that in the end the entire humanity, as a single whole, under the influence of the Laws of materialistic Dialectics is striving for such a state, at which the biosocial homeostasis will have a neutral background. To such a state of society it is possible to give any theoretical name. We shall call it by a code name 'a society with an ideal systemic self-organisation'. The most distinguishing feature of the above society will be that all its members - fng. units, receiving a periodic comparative testimonial to their functional phenogenoabilities and requirements will have all rights and opportunities to occupy for a strictly definite period of time any, even the uppermost fnl. cell along both the structural vertical and the horizontal of any of the fnl. pyramids existing in the hypersystem.
At the same time, the filling in for a strictly definite period of time of any, even the uppermost fnl. cell along both the structural vertical and the horizontal of any of the existing in the hypersystem fnl. pyramids will be realised only with the most corresponding to it, proceeding from an available at a given moment of time presence, fng. unit - individual, able in the process of its functioning to fulfil in the best way the whole list of fnl. algorithms assigned to a given fnl. cell. The present-day right of private property will be transformed gradually in future society into the right of personal responsibility (both individual and collective), depending on a fnl. cell in the structure of an appropriate pyramid a given fng. unit occupies, for the normal functioning and further development of this or that hyperorganism. Only at such order the most useful and responsible, but not the most avid and power-seeking individuals will strive to occupy fnl. cells on the top of pyramids' structural vertical.
There is no doubt that such a society will surely be formed (and the sooner, the better), and all the following generations of humanity will have to take it obligatorily into consideration more and more. Exactly the reason therefore why for the present-day generation the knowledge of the Laws of Dialectics is so important, as only by taking them into consideration and only with their help will it be able as an actual (that is for the present moment of time) representative of all generations of humanity of both the preceding and the following ones (and bearing an appropriate part of responsibility before all of them) to form correctly its (as well as their) FUTURE, dosed with problems within a norm.
But what will be this FUTURE? With an understanding of the Laws of the Dialectics of Matter, now it is already not so difficult for us to imagine it. It is quite natural that the further Evolution of Matter will go on the way of superhypersystemic self-organisation, during which human society in the end, having formed ideally on a planet the Earth as a single whole with a neutral background, will become itself a fng. unit in a fnl. cell of some extrasuperhyperorganism within the limits of the evolving Universe. By other analogous fng. units there can be either some other civilizations, or future branches of our own civilization, if the colonization of the Universe will begin (and it is not excluded at all) only from our planet. But this is already a relatively DISTANT FUTURE...
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