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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
Dialectical Genesis of Material Systems
Due to the fact that the evolution of systems of the level H in space was limited by the Earth's surface, the going of time required the continuation of accelerated motion of Matter along the category of quality even then, when it already exhausted itself on this organisational level. Therefore at a certain stage of the Evolution of Matter only the appearance of new structural formations, composed from groups of cells and having another spectrum of fnl. features, could meet the requirements of this law. Thus, with the appearance of the cell, that is from the moment it acquired original systemic completeness, the Evolution of Matter along the ordinate of quality started to get over into the next organisational level - I, in which already cells themselves began to serve as fng. units, filling in fnl. cells of more complex structures of the new level. It was expressed first of all in fnl. specialisation of individual subsystems of the cell, that with the passing of time brought to the appearance of numerous types of cells, every of which had strictly definite fnl. features. Therefore the functional differentiation of cells should be considered as motion of Matter along the ordinate of quality in limits of the organisational level I, that automatically led, due to the action of the first principle of formation of systems, to their structural integration.
It is necessary also to note that according to the laws of the Evolution of Matter the quantitative augmentation of fng. units of the same type with the identical fnl. features cannot provide the filling in of those newly formed during the process of motion of Matter along the ordinate of quality fnl. cells, and then the Evolution of Matter as a whole. Only the appearance of fng. units with various fnl. features meets these requirements. However, all objects of various types require obligatory systemic organisation. That is why, as the Evolution of Matter is going, the creation of more and more new fng. units is taking place on the basis of the existing ones with features different from the already existing fnl. features, for the realisation of which structural formations of higher and higher systemic level are being formed.
Exactly this had resulted in the end in the necessity of the arising of a new kind of structures, which include organic cells in their fnl. cells as fng. units. This moment was marked on the ordinate of time 2 - 3 billion years ago, when according to the existing data the appearance of 'Life' on Earth was fixed. Until then the Earth, as it is considered now, was sterile. However, according to canons of the modern biology, any living creature is being born only from its parents, that is from the same living creatures. Therefore the theory of the systemic Evolution of Matter helps to reply in the only correct way and to this question as well.
The entering of Matter in its Evolution into a new phase was accompanied by the appearance of a numerous variety of organisms of the vegetable-animal world. Following principles of a systemic formation, organic cells, filling in fnl. cell of more and more new structures and functioning in them as fng. units, were creating various systemic and subsystemic formations, the fnl. load of many of them was only keeping in an organised state systems of organic cells in the process of their specialisation for the formation in future of more perfect organisms. The evolution of the vegetable and animal world lasted a relatively long period of time and its stages are well known. At the same time, during the whole length of this evolution from algae and bacteria to representatives of flora and fauna contemporary with us all processes of formation, existence and dying off submitted to single principles of the systemic organisation of Matter, the action of which extended to every organisational level, including the sublevel I. All organisms related to it constitute integral systems, the structures of which can be imagined as fnl. cells located in space in a certain way and filled with organic cells as fng. units.
Systems of organisms have, as a rule, fnl. subsystems - organs, having this or that fnl. load. The structure of organs is constituted by fnl. cells with fnl. algorithms of approximately the same type and therefore fng. units filling them in - organic cells have approximately the same type of texture and, correspondingly, fnl. features. Groups of such cells have the name 'tissue'. As in the previous organisational sublevels the time of existence of fnl. cells does not coincide with the period of functioning of fng. units. Therefore all organisms have subsystems that provide the delivery of elements for completion - various atoms and molecules for the formation of new fng. units identical to those being replaced in fnl. cells, which have ceased to function. At the same time the fnl. characteristics of newly formed organic cells should coincide fully with the fnl. characteristics of the replaced ones and in the end correspond to the algorithms of fnl. cells being filled in. Mitosis of organic cells are the mechanism that provides the keeping up of appropriate fng. units in permanent fnl. readiness in fnl. cells of organisms' subsystems.
It is known that in any organism, as in any fnl. system, each fnl. cell is occupied by a strictly corresponding to it by its fnl. characteristics fng. unit. And on the contrary, every fng. unit should occupy a place in a fnl. cell strictly corresponding to it. Therefore any deviation from this rule always leads to a situation, when a not corresponding to a given fnl. cell fng. unit is not in a position to carry out injunctions of the available algorithms of functioning, which entails a breach of functioning of this or that subsystem of an organism or of its entire system as a whole which in the end can result in its destruction.
The origination of the so named 'alive nature' took place in waters of the world ocean or, rather, at the junction of seas and land. The availability of all components, including water, as well as atoms of most of chemical elements in the aggregate with the daily permanent source of energy - the radiant energy of the Sun - had created ideal pre-conditions for the systemic constructing of various structures of fnl. cells, which there and then could be filled in with required fng. units. And therefore not episodic discharges of thunderstorms (that were as a necessary condition, but not a cause) served as a push to the origination of complex biostructures (as some hypotheses claim), but the consecutive sorting out of various systemic variants in combination with appropriate favourable conditions of the outside systemic milieu had resulted in the creation of dynamically stable biosystems. Molecules of sea water in combination with various chemical elements in the form of solutions were penetrating through coats of new systemic formations and were filling as fng. units appropriate fnl. cells of their structures, while the radiant energy of the Sun, transforming and freezing in the form of energy of intermolecular links, was assisting in keeping fng. units in their fnl. cells during the period of their functioning.
As a result of the lengthy organisational process, which took place over many millions of years, at first the simplest unicellular organisms appeared - blue-green algae and bacteria, then green algae, fungi and other multicellular plants, which had the most primitive texture, but were the consummation of Matter's creation at that moment of its Evolution. The subsequent going of time and the appropriate moving of Matter along the ordinate of quality required a further increase of functions
(). Because of this, algae getting to land, began to adapt themselves more and more to a dehydrated milieu. In their organism a stratification of subsystems started, each of them carrying out a particular function. In certain cases some tissues began being provided with two and more functions, that is they were becoming polyfunctional, meeting in that way the requirements of the laws of the general Evolution of Matter.
We shall not be describing in detail the entire lengthy process of the evolution of organisms and their fnl. subsystems in that long period. For us it is important to note that as a result of this process a large quantity of various plants appeared, which we shall refer to as one group of so named 'organisms of the first generation'. In spite of there seeming to have outward differences as well as dissimilar fnl. subsystems, all of them are united, and this is particularly important, by a single principle of formation of fng. structures. To be exact: representatives of the whole collection of sublevels C and D - atoms, molecules, ions, radicals, etc., come in the form of solutions as fng. units in their fnl. cells, that is elements of inorganic compounds, present in the soil, or more precisely, in the surroundings and combined in fnl. cells of a given species of organisms with the help of the Sun's energy into systems of very complex organisation. Glucose, aminoacids synthesised in this way from CO2, H2O and other systemic formations of lower sublevels, and then carbohydrates, proteins, nucleotides, etc., that is fng. formations of higher sublevels filled in as fng. units fnl. cells of subsystems of organic cells, which were already themselves fng. units in the structure of plants' organisms. The organic cells, a systemic organisation of which permitted the carrying out of the synthesis of structures in the said way, later came to be named autotrofical. The cells of green plants contemporaneous with us are their characteristic representatives.
The main reaction, that goes on in organisms of the first generation, is the reaction of photosynthesis:
Quantums of light, bombarding the molecular structure of chlorophyll, transmit a certain quantity of its kinetic energy to a part of its electrons, transferring them in this way into an 'excited' state. As a result of this, electrons leave their orbitals and jump over to higher ones. Part of them, joining with ions of hydrogen, turns them into hydrogen, etc. Simultaneously during this process ADP is turning into ATPHA and CO2 into glucose.
The photosynthesis serves as a foundation for nature's permanent great creative process of biosynthesis, as a result of which an innumerable multitude of fng. units is created, filling in fnl. cells corresponding to them in structures of various bioorganisms. More than 170 billion tons of carbon, billions of tons of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, magnesium, potassium and other elements nowadays are being linked on the Earth yearly into more complex structures with the help of photosynthesis. As a result of this about 400 billion tons of various organic substances are being formed. All of them in the form of fng. units fill in fnl. cells of organic cells of all organisms of the vegetable-animal world, providing their normal functioning as systemic formations of a higher order.
During the process of the evolution of organisms of the first generation more and more isolation of the structures of some subsystems was taking place. It became necessary especially after the gradual assimilation of the land by plants and their adaptation to the new conditions of existence. As a result of this lengthy process of fnl. differentiation the next organs (or subsystems) appeared in the structure of plants' organisms: roots, stems, leaves, etc., each of them with its fnl. nomination. So, the main function of the subsystem of roots is to provide the supply for the entire systemic structure of a plant's organism with fng. units of previous sublevels. Molecules of water jointly with atoms and ions of various inorganic substances, which are necessary during the synthesis of complex organic formations (cells, tissues, etc.), come into plants in the form of solutions through the system of roots. Therefore fnl. algorithms of the subsystem of roots should provide a permanent stable source of required chemical elements, at the same time carrying out their identification, dosing, sorting out and transportation to the fnl. cells of the organisms' structure assigned for them.
As the roots' subsystem was perfecting, in some organisms its structure began to include also fnl. cells of the accumulative centre, in which a stock of chemical elements and compounds essential for a plant's organism was being temporarily stowed. Therefore, at periods when any of the essential elements cannot enter from outside due to some reason, the plant could replenish them from the accumulative cells of root plants. The fnl. subsystem of roots is an integral part of a single structure of a plant's organism and submits to its internal algorithmic regulations, directed at providing fnl. characteristics of the plant as an entire system - fng. unit of a higher level. If one makes an artificial separation of the subsystem of roots from the other subsystems of a plants' organism, then the internal algorithmic order would be broken and both parts of the system would end their fnl. existence desintegrating into the fng. units composing them.
Leaves are another important subsystem of plants' organisms. Their main function consists in carrying out the most important organic process - the reaction of photosynthesis during the periods of functioning of the plants' organisms. The structure of each leaf (that is a spatial location of its fnl. cells) constitutes quite a perfect mechanism, allowing to provide an optimal process of photosynthesis reactions in given conditions. At the same time all other subsystems of an organism assist the normal mechanism of this process. Organic compounds received as a result of photosynthesis are transported to appropriate fnl. cells assigned for them, emptying the place for the formation of new units of organic compounds. The reaction of photosynthesis is accompanied by an intensive exchange of gases, for which purpose there are specialised fnl. cells with appropriate algorithms in the structure of the leaves, in which the intake of molecules of carbonic acid gas and the flowing away of molecules of oxygen take place. Besides, the subsystem of leaves carries out also the function of a thermocontrol of the reaction of photosynthesis, which is being achieved in the way of a collection of all the excessive energy of photons from the Sun and eliminating it with the help of a special mechanism of the subsystem, the action of which is based on the principle of emitting (evaporation) molecules of water.
The subsystem of leaves, following climatic fluctuations, functions only at favourable periods for that. When the temperature conditions of the surroundings hinder normal photosynthesis and act in a destructive way to fine mechanisms of leaves, the internal algorithmic regulations of a plant's organism provide their tearing away. This self-defending phenomena in no way violates the integral unity of the structure of a plant's organism and serves for the purposes of providing safety for the rest of its subsystems. Therefore a fall of leaves is the same natural event in the cycle of algorithms of plants' development as their appearance in a process of regeneration.
Stems are the next functionally important subsystem of plants' organisms. The list of functions carried out by combinations of their fnl. cells is also very wide. Here first of all intrasystemic spatial transferences of various fng. units from one part of the system to other: from leaves to roots, from roots to leaves, etc., should be attributed. The structure of stems provides for these purposes the presence of special transport arteries, or vessels, piercing subsystems of the entire organism and through which fng. units are moving from some fnl. cells to others. So water and mineral salts are moving up through roots to an upper part of plants through internal vessels, and organic substances formed in leaves are being transported through external arteries of stems. The structure of the stems (trunks) of many plants includes accumulative fnl. cells, where a stock of elements necessary for subsequent utilisation is being stored. The stems (trunks) of plants serve also for purposes of optimal location of fnl. cells of the structure of a plant's organism in geometry of space. Therefore even a spatial location of leaves' covering of a plant in order to provide the maximum area of its irradiation by the Sun is a function of stems.
One more very important peculiarity of stems' texture is the inclusion into their structure of a signal subsystem of a plant's organism, having its offshoots practically in all its organs. However, the main channels of communication pass exactly through stems. Through these channels the internal information of organisms is moving from one subsystem to another one, coordinating in this way in time the beginning and ending of these or those reactions, having been programmed by algorithms of appropriate fnl. cells. The same signals serve for making corrections in the said algorithms. It is necessary to note here, that the notion 'organism' itself includes the availability of a relatively complete biological system with the obligatory presence of the signal subsystem. Exactly owing to the signal subsystem a certain conglomeration of organic cells is united into the system of a single organism. In the simplest organisms of plants the signal subsystem appeared at first in embryo form, evolving with time into the primitive first signal subsystem, simultaneously commencing the appearance of the spirituality in the organism. As it was already noted, the signal subsystem of the organisms of vegetable-animal world has a bioelectrical nature. With its help the tight coordination of subsystems of a single structure of organism takes place, the regulating in time of algorithmic activity of these or those fng. units.
Here it is necessary also to note, that in such complex systemic formations, as organisms of the first generation are, the common feature for the entire organisation of alive Matter received its further development - the getting irritated. By getting irritated one means the ability of a system to respond to outside action with such a reaction, which by its strength, place and character does not correspond to the strength, place and character of the outside action itself, at the same time the said reaction has a reversible character, that assists to its multiple repetition. In organisms, even the most primitive, getting irritated reveals itself in a much more complicated way than in an isolated proteinous complex, differentiated form, having its definite functional meaning, however, here it is also based on regulations, characteristic for all systemic formations, namely: the transference at a certain period of time of individual fng. units from some fnl. cells to other ones. An elementary form of getting irritated is the capability of myosin situated in organic cells to respond by a contraction to influences on it with a minimum quantity of ATPHA as a natural chemical irritant. The reaction of a contractile protein to ATPHA disappears, if to blockade one of the most important reactive groups of proteins - the sulphohydrilic group. The restoration of these groups in the structure of a contractile protein renews the reaction of the protein to the said irritant.
Plants do not have special tissues or some coordinational centre, perceiving and conducting irritations. However, in spite of a relative primitivity of plants' reactions to irritations, the most complicated subsystem of plasmatic, vascular and hormone-containing connections, united into the primitive signal subsystem, in its turn unites all their parts and organs into a single entire organism and is regulating all physiological and biological processes. An excited part of a plant's tissue or organ acquires the negative charge towards unexcited parts, owing to which between the excited and unexcited parts an electrical current arises (a bioelectrical potential). Besides, substances of high physiological activity (aucsynes and other phytohormones) are being formed (or become free) in an excited part, which move to other parts of tissue and equally with biocurrents cause in them a state of excitement. The speed of the spread of an excitement in plants amounts to several and tens microns/sec.
Having undergone appropriate molecular-physical changes in response to an action of irritating agents, proteinous structures, because of the influence of an available gene record of their initial formation, newly revert to their original state and can react again to these or those actions. The energy of a responding reaction to an irritation is usually proportional, but not equal to the energy of irritation, as a reaction to an irritation is being carried out at the expense of internal energy of the plant's organism, accumulated before - during assimilation. If this internal energy has been used up in preceding reactions to irritations, then new irritations will not cause a responding reaction until the initial energetical level and other characteristics of an excited part of tissue would be restored. Very strong irritations do not stimulate, but on the contrary, oppress vital activity of an organism, and with enough duration of action such irritants break a normal rhythm of its functioning. Owing to this the strength of irritation should be strictly measured.
Organisms of the first generation in spite of their relative primitivity already had a rather reliable subsystem of algorithms' recording based on the biochemical recording of genetic coding of DNA. The information practically from all organic cells, included in an organism, is being collected in it. As the systemic organisation of plants was becoming more complex, the reliability of the subsystems of algorithms' recording, which were providing the coding of the deployment of the structure of fnl. cells of all subsystems of an organism, correlated with spatial-temporal intervals, was also increasing. At first, practically every organ of plants had a subsystem of algorithms' recording. So until nowadays there are plants, in which during cultivation of only one organ the deployment of all others is taking place. The lily of the valley (the rhizome), the poplar (any part of stem), etc. can be attributed to them. However, a system of algorithms' recording, made in a specific, especially for this destined organ of a plant - its seeds, proved to be the most reliable one in the end. One of the principal advantages of such a recording is the possibility of its realisation (the reading of algorithms) after a big interval both in space and in time.
And really, it is quite possible to carry the seeds over to a place situated in many kilometres from the mother plant and to plant them there, that is to start the development of a new organism of plants, in several years after the separation of a seed from the mother plant. All that met the requirements of the Evolution of Matter along the ordinates of quality-time-space. We shall not dwell on the mechanism itself of algorithms' recording of deployments of subsystems' structures of a plant's entire organism in the embryo of seeds, but we should note that this recording is so complete that it includes even quantitative and qualitative differences of all fnl. cells in the structure of a given organism, the time of their deployment and periods of functioning as well as algorithmic differences of each group of functionally isolated fnl. cells. Therefore as soon as a seed gets into an appropriate fnl. cell of the biogeocoenosis, its bioclock is turned on at once and the decoding of a precisely composed gene recording of the embryo starts, being the first phase of the deployment of the organism's structure of the next plant.
Seeds, as it is known, apart from a gene recording of the embryo, have also a small reserve (a dry ration) of thoroughly selected elements, essential for their use as fng. units in the beginning of the deployment of a plant's structure. Later, as the evolution of their various subsystems was progressing, organisms of plants became more 'provident' and apart from the accumulation of a strictly compulsory stock of essential elements in the seed, they began also to accumulate a considerable quantity of elements in its other, more spacious accumulative subsystem - fruits. During the ripening of fruits the main mass of their fnl. cells, having principally the accumulative function, is being filled in with all the elements, necessary for a normal deployment from seeds of the first subsystems of a plant. This filling in, as with all transformations in plants, happens not chaotically, but by obeying a strict regulation of appropriate algorithms, according to which strictly definite molecular compounds in the form of fng. units are filling in fnl. cells assigned for them, where they are being polymerised with the help of the Sun's energy into more complex compounds, which provide them with a more prolonged period of functioning.
Subsequently, after the completion of the ripening of fruits and seeds, that is when all fnl. cells of their structures are filled with appropriate fng. units, a fruit together with seeds falls on the upper layer of soil, where the depolymerisation of its fng. units takes place, as a result of which a milieu of nourishing elements for seeds which are also situated here is created. Therefore as soon as the deployment of a new plant's structure begins from a seed, the reserved elements of the depolymerised fruit serve as the principal source, providing the filling in of its fnl. cells with appropriate fng. units.
During the process of its formation each seed passes through the stage of fertilization, that is the moment of the joining of the two systems' forming structures - pollen and an ovule. This conjunction serves for purposes of improvement of plants' genotype in the way of the spreading around of more perfect structures of fnl. cells of subsystems, formed during the mutation of genes. The perfecting of this process was progressing from plants of both sexes, through one-home ones, that is with both stamen's and pistil's flowers, to two-home ones, when both stamen's and pistil's flowers are located on different plants. Thus, individuals of different sexes were formed already among organisms of the first generation. The appearance of seeds from plants of different sexes provides the availability of gene recording from two parents' systemic formations as a minimum, which assists a permanent perfecting of the structure of fnl. cells of a given species of a plant and the corresponding optimisation of an aggregate of their algorithms. With the creation of gene recording of algorithms of formation and functioning of fng. units of all subsystems of a plant, carried out in DNA of organic cells of seeds' embryo, as well as providing of a minimum reserve of essential elements during the deployment of the organism's structure, the fnl. activity of most plants - organisms of the first generation - practically ends. After the termination of functioning, the structures of their subsystems desintegrate, and fng. units that were filling in their fnl. cells before, depolymerising cover the upper layer of soil, forming and keeping up in this way its humus layer. In future odd elements of the humus layer can be included into a composition of fng. units of the structure of a new plant, in order, after functioning over there, to return to the humus layer again. This process is endless and constitutes the foundation of the biogeocoenosis.
Though the number of varieties of organisms of the first generation is great, their functional load as a whole is identical and the difference consists only in the structural organisation of their subsystems, adjusted to these or those peculiarities of the biogeocoenosis, in which they are territorially placed and fng. units of which they are themselves. Therefore, having exhausted all possible functional increases
()in structures of organisms of the first generation, the Evolution of Matter got over into a new sphere - to constructing of structures with new functions in organisms with a higher systemic organisation, which are united in the next group - organisms of the second generation. Their appearance was the consequence of the existence of organisms of the first generation already sufficiently developed, though the subsequent simultaneous functioning and evolution of organisms of both generations somewhat conceal the secondarity of the genesis of organisms of the second generation. But that which already tells the difference between them, is namely: in the latter ones, during the formation of fng. units for fnl. cells of their subsystems, complex blocks of fng. units of organisms of the first generation are being used as a foundation, revealing the periodicity of the appearances of these two generations.
To the second generation of organisms all herbivorous representatives of the animal world are attributed. The development in them of the subsystem of accelerated artificial splitting of organic compounds of plants' tissue structures allowed them to obtain in large quantities complex material compounds, with the help of which they could permanently fill in fnl. cells of their more and more complex subsystems, which assisted in the appearance of fnl. cells with new characteristics and corresponded to the motion of Matter along the ordinates of quality-time. We shall not analyse in detail the evolution of organisms of the second generation from the protozoa unicellular to contemporary chordate from the class of mammals' herbivorous animals. We shall note only that the main reason for the divergence of their systemic organisation was the necessity to conform to the laws of the Evolution of Matter. The basis of this very long process was a complication of the morphophysiological structure of organisms, which has led to the appearance in the proterozoic era (2 billion years ago) of animals with the double-sided symmetry of body and with its differentiation to the front and rear ends. The front end became the place for the development of organs of sense, nerve-centres and in the future - the brain. In the process of the subsequent evolution, the divergence of types in the animal world was mainly taking place and the substitution of primary low organisational primitive forms by more highly organised ones in the way of more and more differentiation of the structure and functions of tissues and organs of organisms. At the same time fnl. cells of tissues of organisms of the second generation were already being filled in by only heterotrophic organic cells as fng. units, that is incapable of a synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic ones. In organic cells themselves the system of gene recording in chains of DNA was perfecting more and more. A characteristic peculiarity of organic cells of any organ remained, that in each of them all genes of a given kind of organisms was available, however in cells of various tissues only few groups of genes were used, that is only those of them in which algorithms of structural deployment and the functioning of structures of fnl. cells, which given cells are occupying as fng. units, are recorded.
The morphophysiological progress, or aromorphosis, that was going for many hundred of millions of years, has led to considerable evolutionary modifications of subsystems of the structure of organisms of the second generation (that was expressed in the general rise of their organisation), biological progress as well as to other not less important consequences. Here it is necessary first of all to attribute the alienation of their systems from the humus layer of soil and the ability to move easily and autonomously along a substratum. Owing to this, the organisms got a possibility to assimilate gradually deserted areas of the Earth's surface in three spheres: on land, in water and in air, that led to an augmentation of fnl. diversity of their structures and fully met the requirements of motion of Matter in quality-time-space. The acquired capability for movements in the space close to the Earth's surface allowed organisms of the second generation to move from one source of nutrition (systems of organisms of the first generation) to another one, extending to a maximum their natural habitat. Moreover, at unfavourable moments an organism had after that a possibility to cover itself up in a place more secure for it. The consumption of various herbaceous plants increased the set of elements, out of which fng. units, which were filling in fnl. cells of subsystems of animals' organisms, were formed. At the same time each element was filling in a fnl. cell assigned precisely for it, where it could reveal its own fnl. features characteristic only to it. Also, as in all systemic formations of previous sublevels, any newly originated fnl. cell of a structure of this or that organism undoubtedly required for its filling only a fng. unit, capable of carrying out its set of fnl. algorithms. The slightest disparity of a fng. unit to the fnl. cell it was filling in, led to a breach of the functioning of a given subsystem of an organism and to a possible failure of its entire system as a whole.
Let us examine briefly the structure of organisms of the second generation. As an example we shall take the structure of an organism of any contemporary mammal. Its integral semi-autonomous system includes a great number of subsystems. One of the principal of them is the bearing-motor subsystem. It includes the bone skeleton with groups of muscles attached to it. The bone skeleton, fixing a geometrical position in space of other subsystems of an organism, carries out in certain cases a protective function as well. The organic cells of the muscular tissue with the help of biochemical reactions with the assistance of ATPHA, as a universal source of bioenergy, contracting at a set moment in time, bring to a spatial transference with a given speed of individual parts of the organism. The bearing-motor subsystem well coordinated and precisely operated allows some present-day animals to move with a velocity of several tens of km per hour.
Another important subsystem of the organism is the subsystem of digestion. It includes a number of organs, where the processes of dividing organic compounds of subsystemic formations of organisms of the first generation into particles happen regularly until such a state when they can be utilized as composite elements in synthesised heterotrophic organic cells of various organs of subsystems of the organism, examined by us. The regularity of the said processes is defined by the requirements of individual subsystems in the replacement in their fnl. cells of fng. units, which have ended functioning, to new ones. Equally with the subsystem of digestion the subsystem of excretion is also functioning. Through its organs unrequired elements present in organic compounds of food, as well as elements of decomposition of ended functioning fng. units of most of subsystems of the organism are moved away from the organism.
The permanently functioning subsystem of breathing serves to provide biochemical reactions in various organs and tissues with the exchange of gases. In the process of exchange of gases a continual supply of oxygen, required for oxidizing-restoring reactions, takes place as well as the taking aside of one of the products of decomposition of all organic compounds - carbonic acid gas.
The accumulative subsystem of the organism includes the organs, fnl. cells of which are being filled with a certain reserve of the most of elements, which are necessary for the formation of fnl. cells of other subsystems, in this way making the period of autonomous functioning of the organism as a whole longer. In organs of the said subsystem a number of organic compounds are also being accumulated, the subsequent breaking up of which can serve as an additional source of energy. The accumulative subsystem has a very important significance in the vital activity of organisms of the animal world. With its help the organism has a possibility of increasing intervals between feedings, and functioning normally during the said interruptions. This is especially important for animals, the natural habitat of which can be an area of desert as well as in the cold season of the year.
The subsystem of the circulation of blood and lymph provides a permanent safe transportation of all necessary components for biochemical reactions going in organic cells and taking aside the elements, formed in the process of decomposition of units, that ended functioning. Blood constitutes the structure of fnl. cells, having the features of a liquid, filled in with appropriate fng. units. Therefore in blood there is always a full list of elements, being used in organic cells during their synthesising, and they move at a necessary moment from fnl. cells of blood to appropriate fnl. cells of an organic cell, being synthesised. Vacant fnl. cells of blood are filled in at once with new fng. units from the accumulative subsystem of fnl. cells or directly from the subsystem of digestion. Fnl. cells of blood hold in appropriate elements and compounds as well as ensuring their transference to fnl. cells of organic cells being synthesised on a bioelectrical basis.
Due to the fact that all biochemical reactions in organic cells happen at a strictly set temperature, in organisms of the second generation there is a more perfected, than in organisms of the first generation, subsystem of thermoregulation, providing the constancy of the internal temperature of a body in spite of any temperature fluctuations of the habitat. Sometimes these fluctuations reach 70oC.
Because of a big complexity of formation and functioning of the system of the second generation's organisms, it required a reliable subsystem of self-preservation, or the protective subsystem, the beginning of which we can observe already in organisms of the first generation. The said subsystem includes special organs and fnl. algorithms both of the external and internal self-defences. In particular, the internal self-defence is directed mainly against penetrating into organisms' various organs of foreign formations, which the subsystem of self-defence tries to destroy and remove from the system. It is interesting that one of the methods of the internal self-defence, is based on the principle of constancy of the temperature for reactions going in biosystems. Coming from the fact that intruded micro-organisms (for example, viruses) reactionary are more active as they do not have practically any accumulative subsystem, the organism with the purpose of self-defence raises through the subsystem of thermoregulation the common temperature in the whole system, consciously taking the risk of temporary breach of some of its own bioreactions. However, the breaches caused by this in foreign microsystems are much more serious, due to which they perish and are removed from the organism's system, while the temperature conditions characteristic for a given organism are restored again by the subsystem of thermoregulation.
Organisms of the second generation have to move permanently, as it is known, in search of food on the land, in the water and the air. To provide a secure travel as well as a more fruitful search of food the subsystem of perception, search and orientation went under extensive development in the systems of these organisms. It includes organs of eyesight, hearing and smell. With their help organisms can easily orient themselves in space and more effectively carry on the search of consumed parts of organisms of the first generation. The said organs also participate in algorithms of the functioning of the subsystem of the external self-defence.
Among other subsystems of organisms of the second generation it is necessary to pick out the three most important. One of them became the singled out subsystem of communication of getting irritated, or excitements. For an organism moving along the substratum in conditions of a quickly changing situation a more accelerated communication of appropriate signals from one organ to another one was needed. Owing to this the communication of signals in the organisms of the second generation came to have an entirely bioelectrical basis and the singled out subsystem of communication has developed into the central nervous subsystem (the CNS). The organic cells, included in this organ, differ through an especially good electric conductivity, due to which so named currents of rest and currents of action are constantly circulating in them. In the presence of some irritant an excitement of a given part of the tissue is taking place and a current of action arises in connection with this. The excited part of tissue acquires the negative electrical charge with regard to any part of it not excited, after that according to an available algorithm the bioelectrical potential is being communicated into an appropriate organ of the system, while the velocity of communication of the signal owing to the evolution gradually increased in the end to 120 m/sec. The single CNS of organisms of the second generation took upon itself the function of coordinating of fnl. activity practically of all subsystems of the organism, giving in such a way the ground for the originating of the more improved, than in organisms of the first generation, first signal subsystem and together with it of organisms' peculiar 'spirituality'. The further evolution of the first signal subsystem was in the way of the establishment and consolidation of so named reflex arcs, which were forming a certain chain of fnl. cells, filled in with appropriate nervous cells. In the process of the formation of the CNS its individual parts were functionally differentiating more and more, originating the spinal cord, the cerebrum, the vegetative nervous subsystem.
A distinguishing feature of nervous cells is that they, in contradistinction to others, do not have the capability to a cell-fission and exist during the whole life of an organism, owing to which an established once reflex arc under certain conditions exists till the moment of the desintegration of the organism's entire system. The first signal subsystem includes reflex arcs, communicating excitements both from receptors, reacting to external irritants, and from receptors of internal irritations. The structure of stable reflex arcs is recorded genetically and reproduced in following generations, creating the list of so named unconditioned reflexes. As a result the nervous subsystem of the organism has acquired the biggest significance in carrying out regulation and precise coordination of fnl. activity of the various subsystems of the single organism.
In the process of the existence of organisms of the second generation more and more situations began to turn out, when to some receptors' irritations it was more expedient for the organism to react quite differently. So, for example, a replete animal at seeing new portions of food or water does not react to them somehow, as its first signal subsystem, besides the receiving of the signal from the receptor of its eye at the same time, receives also a signal from a receptor of the accumulative subsystem of its organism, and this signal by its irritating strength for some time proves to be stronger than the first one. Through analysis of constantly received signals about irritations of various strength of numerous receptors in junctions of the centres of refraction of reflex arcs in the depths of the CNS the centres of analysis and processing of irritating signals began to form, on which the function of coordination of subsequent reactions to the most irritations, communicated from various receptors, fell. As the evolution of organisms of the second generation was going on these analytical centres of the first signal subsystem were localised more and more in the structures of the cerebrum, but taking into consideration that functionally organisms of the second generation were differing one from another more and more, an analogous bigger and bigger difference the analytical fnl. centres of the CNS were acquiring as well. Thus, with time it became more and more obvious that each newly appearing function of organisms of the second generation was receiving its own analytical centre of the CNS' cerebrum, that is the actual field of the motion of Matter in quality-time
()at the new phase of its Evolution was moving more and more into the structures of the organism's cerebrum.
One more important subsystem of organisms of the second generation became the subsystem of gene recording, which besides coding of the structural deployment of an entire system as well as the composition of all fng. units began recording genetically also the reflex connections of arcs and the appropriate analytical fnl. centres of the signal subsystem of the CNS. Exactly in this way the genotype of organisms began to arise. Being created anew afterwards reflex arcs and analytical fnl. centres after consolidating them as conditioned reflexes were making up the phenotype of the organism, after that were recorded genetically and handed down, going already equally with reflexes recorded before into the genotype of following generations, supplementing it accordingly and developing more and more its 'spirituality'.
The last important subsystem of organisms of the second generation, which it is necessary to consider, is the subsystem of the reproduction of posterity, based on the functional division of all organisms into two sexes: male and female individuals. With time each sex was acquiring more and more fnl. specialisation, however the organs of subsystems, taking the direct part in reproduction of posterity, got the largest distinction. The conception of every organism begins from the moment of joining of two specialised organic cells - gametes, separately taken from individuals of both sexes. In each gamete there is its own gene recording, which is comprised in a haploid set of several tens of chromosomes, while any intrachromosomal deviation of a genome is reflected in a certain way in the being formed genofund of posterity. The development of foetuses of mammals' organisms takes place at first in the special subsystem of a mother organism under the control of its CNS regulating first of all the entire supply of appropriate nutritive elements for the filling in of fnl. cells of a new organism's structure being deployed. After the birth of the young cub and its separation from the mother system, the supply of the new organism with nutritive elements by the mother organism is carried out still for a long time and it comes in the form of the special solution (milk), being produced by the appropriate fnl. subsystem of the female individual's organism. Organisms of the second generation also have subsystems of reproduction of posterity by means of laying eggs, constituting an embryo in the milieu strictly dosed of thoroughly selected nutritive elements, which it fully utilizes as fng. units for fnl. cells of a structure deployed until a certain moment of its own development.
Thus, the morphological and physiological differentiation of subsystems of organisms of the second generation, which was occurring over many millions of years, met the requirements of the motion of Matter along the ordinate quality-time
(), being at the same time a direct consequence of this motion. It is necessary to note that the said form of motion in the Evolution of Matter by that moment became definitely dominating for the area of the Universe being examined, as the motion in space-time began taking more and more a secondary subsidiary part.
In the process of evolution new, higher in its organisation groups of organisms were arising in the way of aromorphosises, idioadaptations and degenerations. At one of the stages of the said process of evolution of the systemic organisation of Matter the representatives of organisms of the third generation appeared. To them such organisms are attributed, that utilize for construction half-finished products during the synthesis of their fng. units neither inorganic substances of the humus layer and nor organic compounds divided into particles of tissues of individual organs of plants, but considerably more complex organic substances of tissues of organisms of the second generation. As a result of this, the necessity to consume individual organs of various plants permanently and in big quantities in order to fill in fnl. cells of their subsystems with appropriate fng. units fell away from the carnivores, as they began to be named later. It became enough for them to seize one of organisms of the second generation to obtain at once in a big quantity a variety of many essential elements, being in fnl. cells of the organism of a herbivorous animal and from which they could synthesise fng. units for the subsystems of their organism. Starting from this time the organism began to receive necessary elements in the form of ready blocks (block-nutrition), that fully met the principles of the formation of material systems, pre-determining the utilization of stable complexes of units of preceding levels as fng. units in structures of all subsequent stages of organisation.
In the systemic organisation of organisms of the third generation fewer changes took place in respect to organisms of the second generation, than it was between the second and the first generations. First of all the subsystem of digestion was changed considerably being adapted for the new form of nutrition, as well as the nervous subsystem which got some more fnl. significance. Among organisms of the third generation the on-land animals began to be noted more and more by the level of their development. In the end, all further evolution of the animal world on the whole began to come precisely to a consecutive complication of the CNS in the on-land organisms of the third generation, increasing in intensification and efficiency of its use, augmenting the diversity of its functions' spectrum. Mainly it told on the systemic organisation of the cerebrum, which was becoming more and more the specialised subsystem of multiplying analytical fnl. centres, uniting analysers and initiators of most of the processes, going inside the organism, and of some - outside of it.
In spite of a big number of species of organisms of all three generations (on the Earth only nowadays they number about 0.5 millions of plants' species and 1.5 mln. - animals') and their fnl. heterogeneity, nonetheless on the ordinate of quality-time all the same a moment came, when all this diversity became insufficient to provide a further Evolution of Matter. The way out of this could be found, as before, only in some more complex organisation of Matter in the way of origination of the next new organisational level. The first premises of transition to it already began to arise about 30 mln. years ago, when in forests of Palaeogene and Neogene Parapipithecus appeared - animals about the size of a cat, which were living on trees and were feeding on plants and insects. The present-day gibbons and orangutans have descended from Parapipithecus as well as one more branch - the extincted ancient apes Driopithecus, which gave three branches, that have led to chimpanzee, gorilla and to the human being. Charles Darwin proved convincingly that man represents the last, highly organised link in the chain of the evolution of living creatures of four generations and has common distant forbears with apes.
So, as a result of the motion of Matter along the organisational level I, it is necessary to consider the origination of the most evaluated organisms - organisms of the fourth generation, among which we number only human beings, whose organism's system as a whole reached by that time a stable perfection. Being a derivative system, which had absorbed all the best from organisms of the second and third generations, the man received as a genetic heritage a collection of all those subsystems, that were providing his existence and reliable functioning in the wide range of environment. As a nutrition to fill in fnl. cells of own subsystems his organism was adapting itself more and more to consumption of highly nutritious parts of organisms of the second and third generations. So, both accumulative subsystems, formed around seeds in organisms of the first generation (fruits, berries), rich in diverse elements, and various parts of organisms of the second generation, began to occupy a bigger and bigger part in his ration. Parts of organisms of the third generation, that is of carnivores, the man practically did not and does not consume, as carnivores also do not do it themselves, because of the impossibility of their utilization in order to fill in fnl. cells of his organism's subsystems. However, in future and until nowadays the subsystem, regulating in the organism of man his high nervous activity, and first of all the structure of his cerebrum, began to receive more and more, outstripping development and specialisation.
And really, if the volume of cranium of an ape was 600 cm3, then already the first man, the Australopithecus, who lived 3 - 5 mln. years ago, began to have the volume of cranium 800 cm3. The Pithecanthropus, who lived 1 mln. years ago, had already the volume of cranium varying within the limits of 900-1100 cm3. Thanks to straight walking the hands of ape-like forbears of man became free from the necessity of keeping up its body while moving and began to acquire the ability to make other various auxiliary movements. Owing to this the Pithecanthropus though it did not have yet habitations fit for living, could already make use of fire and began to use various objects as first tools. Besides the enormous advantage gained in connection with the release of forelegs, the conversion to straight walking was giving to hominoid forbears of man one more evolutional acquisition: as a result of the change in the position of the head and eyes the volume of perception by them of visual information greatly increased, due to which possibilities in working-out the response adequate to a concrete situation widened a lot.
If the conversion of the Australopithecus to straight walking itself could not be implemented without a big alteration of fnl. characteristics of their brain, then the perfection of straight walking and the possibilities of orientation in the surroundings increased in connection with this, as well as the use of arms in its turn raised the role of the cerebrum as the central subsystem of estimation of information about the surroundings and for regulating the conduct of the entire organism. Simultaneously with the above process the anatomical perfection of arms and hands was progressing as instruments of working activity, at first still primitive, but at subsequent stages of the evolution were turned gradually into instruments of complex, consciously programmed activity.
Undoubtedly, that natural selection, which was taking place at the same time, was leaning on an optimal set of genomes, controlling anatomical formation of organs. At the same time, the adaptive fnl. use of all anatomical achievements and their further evolutional perfection were already impossible without the perfection of the cerebrum as the central instrument, regulating new functions of body, due to which the structure and fnl. characteristics of cerebrum were becoming more and more principal criterions of further selection. Therefore precisely the cerebrum as the subsystem, regulating position and functioning of body, the activity of hands, that became free as well as orientation in a concrete life situation and formation of programs of conduct, became from that time the most important factor in natural selection. Exactly the further multiplication and perfection of its analytical fnl. centres, reflecting the augmentation of functions
()in the process of the Evolution of Matter as a whole, became the ground at that period of time of its intensive motion along the following organisational level - K.
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