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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
Dialectical Genesis of Material Systems
By differentiating conceptually the cascade stages of the Evolution of Matter, it is necessary to imagine clearly that the commencement of the phase of the functional development of Matter along each following organisational level and the stopping of its development along a preceding level are going on a parallel way, simultaneously one with the other, for a considerable period of time. The formation and accumulation of the humus layer of the soil on the Earth was taking place over many hundreds of millions of years. At the same time this process was taking place simultaneously with the beginning of the development of the biosphere and appearance of Life on our planet. The formation of the biosphere took place mainly in the way of the synthesis of fng. units of the humus horizon of the soil, which accumulates and stores the fnl. systems - complexes of the organisational level G, that have become at a certain stage as functioning units of the organisational level H, from which later in its turn the creation of systems of the present sublevel - aminoacids, proteins and other intracellular structures started.
All this happened in the period when, as it is known, hydrocarbons and their simplest oxygen and nitrous derivatives appeared on the surface of the Earth, being in water solution - in the primary earth's hydrosphere - under the influence of the laws of motion of Matter in quality
(), gradually being involved into reactions of polymerisation and condensation and in this way being more and more integrated into different complex organic compounds, having different functional features. Aminoacids, in particular, appeared in this mixture of organic substances. Further structural integration of these fnl. systems according to the outline:
resulted in the creation of coacervatical drops - individual protein complexes, separated from surroundings by a definitely marked surface.
In coacervatical drops, as in any fnl. system of Matter of the present organisational level, chemical processes of synthesis and decomposition permanently are going on. But the duration of each individual reaction under the influence of catalysts included into a system is so little and the frequency of reactions is so great, that all processes are lasting practically continuously. This forms the impression of the 'liveliness' of an examined object. Thus, velocities of synthesis and decomposition of high-molecular organic compounds are the basis of the functioning of all existing vital systems, while each of the going reactions has its strictly definite algorithm. The correlation of frequency and velocities of the said processes depends on an individual composition and organisation of every given system and also on its coordination with the conditions of the surroundings. If in this correlation a balance is kept, then a coacervatical drop, as any other system, acquires a dynamically steady character. If the velocity and frequency of synthetic reactions predominate in it, then it grows. Otherwise it decomposes to component fng. units. Thus there is a close link between an individual systemic organisation of a given coacervatical drop, those chemical transformations, that are happening in it in accordance with certain for its fnl. cells algorithms, and its further destiny in given conditions of existence.
In the primary earth's hydrosphere coacervatical drops, which have been created by the means of the synthesis of protein molecules, were floating not just in water, but in a solution of various organic and inorganic substances, that is prepared fng. units (of levels F - G). In accordance with the laws of motion of Matter in quality
()further integration of their structures was running parallel with differentiation and growth of the number of fnl. cells entering their system. But this was realised during long natural selection and only with respect to those drops, the individual systemic organisation of which caused their dynamic steadiness in given conditions of the surroundings and alteration of fnl. qualities on the way of creation by them of new fng. units of a higher organisational level. Only such coacervatical drops could exist for a long period of time, grow and divide into 'branch' formations. Those drops, in which under the given conditions of surroundings chemical changes did not lead to further complication of the systemic structure, carried out the function of temporary accumulator of fng. units F, that is were formed under the influence of the accumulative factor of the systemic development and after a certain period of time of functioning they disintegrated into component fnl. complexes of lower sublevels, stopping its existence as a systemic formation of the present organisational level. Thus, as in any process of systemic organisation, coacervatical drops depending on the factor organising them divided into functionally active and functionally passive. The latter, though they could not play a vital part in the further development of protein bodies, still were essential for that period of time, as they carried out functions appropriate to them. So, already in the process itself of the coming into being of Vitality a new regularity arose, which reminds a kind of 'natural selection' of individual protein complexes. Under strict monitoring of this selection all further evolution of protein coacervats was going on the way of permanent improvement of their fnl. cells' structures. Exactly therefore that mutual coordination of phenomena was being created in them (that is the collection of fnl. algorithms was being more and more renewed and complicated), that fitness of internal composition to carrying out of vital functions in the given conditions of the surroundings and that is typical for organisation of all living creatures. The comparative study of metabolism in modern primitive organisms reveals, how on the stated basis the high-organised order of phenomena was being created, which is related to all living creatures and which was going in full conformity with the general theory of evolving systems. Thus at a certain stage of the Evolution of Matter the Vitality arose on the Earth, represented on our planet by a huge number of separate individual systems - organisms. "Our definition of life", F. Engels wrote in Anti-Duhring, "obviously is quite inadequate, as it is far away from the point to comprehend all the phenomena of life, but on the contrary, is limited to the most common and simplest among them... In order to give a really exhaustive explanation about life, we would have to trace through all the forms of its revealing itself from the lowest to the highest one."
As it is known, the beginning of the appearance of the simplest vital systems occurred about two billion years ago in the proterozoic era. Primary living creatures were generated in water during the process of a long evolution of dynamically steady coacervatical drops, fnl. complexes of which were being included as components into systems of the following organisational levels. Owing to that already at this stage of the Evolution of Matter the mechanism of the construction of high-organised systems revealed itself most fully and continued to perfect itself, one of the basic principles of which is to fill in fnl. cells of a system not with single fng. units, but with whole blocks or complexes of them. Under the influence of that principle fnl. systems of the organisational level H were steadily absorbing protein complexes surrounding them, 'splitting' them and filling in with the formed blocks free fnl. cells of their structures, in the end synthesising from them fng. units of a higher organisational level. Meanwhile the energy, emitted during the desintegration of complexes, was used mostly to carry out reactions of synthesis. All that finally ensured the most ancient forms of the organisation of Life, to which bacteria, various types of algae and fungi should be attributed. Vegetable and animal organisms contemporary with us, including Man, at the present moment in time are the results of all the historical Evolution of Matter along the organisational level H during a period of many millions of years. We will not scrutinise in detail all the phases of phylogenesis of vegetable and animal world, which are well known. We shall dwell only on the main peculiarities of the motion of Matter in quality at these organisational levels in order to make certain that they are also linked indissolubly with the regularities of the Evolution of Matter along all the previous sublevels, that their direct extension is inseparable from them and together with them forms a unified developing systemic organisation of material substance.
So Life arose as a result of a complex systemic integration of fng. units of all the sublevels, attributed to the number of so called 'inorganic' elements. This process was going directionally during a long period of time and consisted, equally with the perfecting of spatial structures of fnl. cells of any level, in the selection and consolidation of an optimal set of algorithms for each of these cells and also of an optimal period of functioning for fng. units filling them in. The division of substances into inorganic and organic has a rather conceptual character, but it is used to consider that most of compounds, the composition of which includes carbon, are attributed to the category of organic, as in the nature they are met almost solely in organisms of animals and vegetables, take part in vital processes or are the products of the vital activity or desintegration of organisms.
Despite the variety of natural organic substances they usually consist of a great number of elements of the same type - fng. units of previous sublevels; their composition besides carbon almost always includes hydrogen, often oxygen and nitrogen, sometimes sulphur and phosphorus. These elements are named organogenes, that is generating organic molecules. The phenomena of isomeria spread widely among organic compounds, that is structural variety of systemic formation of fnl. cells. As a result, systems have quite different fnl. features with the same quantitative collection of fng. units. Therefore the phenomena of isomeria in particular causes an enormous variety of organic substances, concurrently raising more and more the coefficient of polyfunctionality of fng. units that meets the requirement of the accelerated motion of Matter in quality, characteristic for the present organisational level. One of the important peculiarities of organic compounds, which tells on all their chemical features, is the character of links between atoms in their molecules. In the overwhelming majority these links have clearly expressed a covalent character. Therefore organic substances in majority are not electrolytes, do not dissociate in solutions to ions and comparatively slowly interact, one with the other. Time, which is necessary to complete reactions between organic substances, is usually measured in hours and sometimes in days. That is why in organic chemistry the participation of different catalysts has especially great importance.
Many of the known organic compounds carry out the functions of vehicles, participants or the products of processes, going on in animal organisms, or - such as ferments, hormones, vitamins and others - are biological catalysts, initiators and regulators of these processes. According to the theory of the chemical composition of organic substances, the functional characteristics of compounds depend on:
1) the collection of fng. units, which determines their qualitative and quantitative composition;
2) the structural location in space of fnl. cells of a system, affecting chemical features of substances;
3) the aggregate of algorithms of fnl. cells of a given system, which determine the order of
a) consecutive filling in of fnl. cells with appropriate fng. units,
b) their functioning and
c) subsequent desintegration of subsystems.
The variety of organic compounds is caused first of all by fnl. characteristics of atoms of carbon to combine one with another by covalent links, originating carbonic chains practically of unlimited length.
During the process of the Evolution of Matter along the organisational level H organic compounds were gradually being formed, which represented more and more dynamically stable fnl. systems, which in their turn later became fng. units in systems of a higher order. To such dynamically stable organic compounds aminoacids, in particular, can be attributed. The general formula of their creation is the following:
where R - fnl. cell of hydrocarbonic radical, which can be occupied as well by other different fng. units.
From hundreds and thousands of molecules of aminoacids (as fng. units) more complex molecules of proteinous substances or proteins (fnl. systems) are being synthesised, which dissociate on the expiry of the period of their functioning under the influence of mineral acids, alkalis or ferments to fng. units composing them - aminoacids in order to give them an opportunity later again to form part of a composition of new compounds in the process of being created, that is to fill in new fnl. cells appropriate to them. And this process repeats itself continually an infinite number of times.
The importance of proteins is also well known. They take a significant part in all vital processes, and are carriers of Life. Proteins themselves as fng. units form part of more complex systems and subsystems of organisms, and are contained in all cells, tissues, in blood, bones, etc. Ferments (enzymes), many hormones constitute complex proteins.
All varieties of protein are formed by different combinations of 20 aminoacids; while for each protein the structural construction of a system of fnl. cells is strictly specific, being filled in by appropriate aminoacids and other fng. units, and also the aggregate of its algorithms, that is the temporal sequence of the unfolding of the system of a protein (filling in its fnl. cells by fng. units), of the functioning and desintegration of its subsystems. In the structure of proteinous systems one can distinguish subsystemic block-formations of peptides, the composition of which includes two or more aminoacids connected by peptidase links
( -- CO -- NH -- ). These formations represent one of intermediate stages of the organisational development of Matter.
Further perfecting of proteinous systems' structures was going by means of the association of aminoacids' polymers into peptidase chains and cyclical formations in combinations having different quantitative ratios and sequence of fnl. cells. As a result of this process an inexhaustible diversity of chemical structures of aminoacids' macro-polymers were created, each of them being a complex systemic combination of fng. units included into it of all organisational sublevels, represented at the same time a new group of fng. units of higher order, prepared to fill in appropriate fnl. cells of new hypersystems destined for it. Meanwhile each functioning unit - protein possessed its own strictly individual peculiarities of formation, an invariable number of fnl. cells of its structure, a strictly definite combination of them and algorithms of formation, functioning and desintegration, that gave to every fng. unit inherent only in it fnl. features corresponding to a certain point on the coordinate of motion of Matter in quality.
Simultaneously the coefficient of polyfunctioning of individual fng. units continued to grow. The principle of the action of the mechanism of polyfunctioning comes to the following. If to take some fng. unit with definite fnl. features and to put it subsequently now into one, now into another fnl. cell, and it meanwhile can normally carry out algorithms essential for the given fnl. cells, then that would mean that the attribute of polyfunctioning is inherent in it. The bigger number of fnl. cells of different structures a given fng. unit can occupy in turn during a certain period of time, the higher is its coefficient of polyfunctioning. As a rule, each unit can occupy simultaneously only one fnl. cell of some structure. As an example it is possible to mention any chemical element, the type of hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, that can form part of many chemical compounds, but at this very moment are only in one of them. Another kind of polyfunctioning is the removal of a fng. unit x from some fnl. cell of a system and placing there a fng. unit y or z, owing to which fnl. features of a given systemic formation would change accordingly. After the return displacement of fng. units the system again finds its primary fnl. features; and therefore the more frequent substitution of fng. units in its fnl. cells during a certain period of time a given system admits, the higher its coefficient of polyfunctioning is. In this case as examples can serve all reversible chemical reactions of substitution of the type
H2O + Cl2 = 2HCl + O2, cells of hydrocarbonaceous radical R in the structure of aminoacids, etc.
Aminoacids forming part of a proteinous molecule keep free and reaction able their specific polyfunctional cells, the chemical functions of which consist in the ability to connect different systemic groupings. This causes the interaction of proteins with the most different substances, creating exceptional chemical opportunities, which no other substances of the present sublevel have. Due to this the proteins, forming, for example, part of alive protoplasm, combine into complexes with other compounds - from water and mineral substances to all kinds of organic compounds, including other proteins. These complexes, depending on the factor forming them, can be rather stable and be formed in quantities essential for the creation of hypersystems. As examples of such complexes serve various composite proteins - nucleoproteids, chromoproteids, lipoproteids, metalloproteids, etc. - they participate in the creation of hypersystemic structures and at the same time take an important part in their functioning because of their catalytic characteristics. Besides stable compounds, proteins are also able to form extremely ephemeral complexes, the period of functioning of which is comparatively short. Obeying appropriate algorithms these compounds quickly arise and, after having functioned, also quickly decompose. Thus through the mechanism of polyfunctioning the most various elements from accumulative subsystems are being involved into metabolism of organisation of life of Matter for temporary use of their fnl. features in that or this systemic formation.
After filling in fnl. cells of multi-molecular compounds with separate individual proteins - fng. units, new systemic units are being formed, physical and chemical features of which essentially differ from the features of separate proteins included into their composition. Associating between themselves proteins create whole molecular swarms, representing different structural formations of an alive substance. It is rather essential that fnl. features of proteins, their ability to react to different substances and to associate into multimolecular complexes, is defined not only by the composition and location of aminoacidous residues, but also by the spatial configuration of proteinous molecules, that is by the relative location in space of certain parts of its structure. The chemical interaction of side radicals and polar groups of aminoacidous residues, acting intramolecularly, initiates a natural rolling of peptidase chains of proteinous molecules and the unification of them into balls, into so named proteinous globules, having a regulated spatial configuration. In the inner structure of proteinous globules certain sections of peptidase chains and locked up rings turn out to be located in a particular way with regard to each other and mutually consolidated by means of the sewing together of these sections by hydrogen or other durable links. The structure of that kind causes defined dimensions and the contour of proteinous molecules. It can approximate to spherical or be very stretched out. These or those alterations of a globule's outer milieu have a great influence on its contour, much compressing or, vice versa, stretching it out. Alternating fnl. features of protein, even while keeping constant its aminoacidous composition, depend on that which active groupings of fng. units of aminoacidous residues at a given configuration of a globular ball prove to be located on the surface and therefore accessible to chemical interaction, and which would be concealed inside, protected, 'shielded' by neighbouring groupings. That is why even very insignificant changes of spatial architectonics of a globule strongly influence the chemical reactivity of protein and on those finely nuance its characteristics that determine the biological specificity of each individual proteinous compound. This originated during the process of the Evolution of Matter, one more and more complex and fine mechanism of polyfunctioning assisted by being dictated by the laws of the Evolution accelerated motion of Matter along the category of quality
(). Its role for the organisation of alive substance increased especially after the principal function of this mechanism was determined - by means of the modification of the configuration of proteinous globules to regulate their fermentous activity.
It is known that chemical reactions are being accomplished between organic compounds in living organisms with very big velocities, though quite measurable, but absolutely incomparable with those which are being observed during the interaction of these compounds in an isolated and refined shape outside living bodies. The reason for this is that in the composition of alive protoplasm there are always present special biological accelerators - ferments, named proteins (if they are plain) or proteids (if composite), in which the protein is combined into a complex with a nonproteinous ('prosthetic') group - in most cases with a metalloorganic compound or with some vitamin. Due to this, in every live cell a whole collection of various ferments is present as most proteins and proteids possess fermentous activity. Thus ferments constitute the bulk of protoplasmic proteins. The circumstance, that the basis of fermentous complexes always is some fermentous globules possessing certain architectonics, causes several peculiarities, which distinguish ferments from other catalysts. That is first of all the exceptional catalytic power of ferments. A large number of inorganic and organic compounds of lower organisational levels are known to be able to accelerate the same reactions as ferments do. The mechanism of action of any catalyst is rather simple and reminiscent of the action of a key being put into some system. During the reactions of decomposition the free links of a catalyst neutralise forces of connections, combining fng. units together into one system, and it desintegrates to components. In reactions of synthesis the catalyst, by giving its free links, accelerates the process of combining fng. units. However, the complexity and perfection of the systemic structure of ferments increased much more the power of their catalytic influence by comparison with less organised catalysts, which reflected on the shortening of the time of the duration of reactions, that is of reconstructing of the structure-principal. So, for example, ions of ferrum decompose peroxide hydrogen to oxygen and water. An appropriate ferment (cattalos), constituting a combination of a ferro-porphyric complex with a specific protein, possesses the same effect. But it accomplishes this reaction ten billion times faster, than inorganic ferrum. In other words, 1 mg of ferrum, included in a fermentous complex, by its catalytic activity can substitute 10 tons of inorganic ferrum. Thus, ferments are relatively composite systemic formations of the level H, the main function of which is to provide adjustments in a certain diapason of time of structural reconstructing of hypersystems, into which they are included, in accordance with the injunctions of becoming more complicated algorithms of hyperpolyfunctioning, that is correlations of systemic structures depending on modifications of their fnl. characteristics. Therefore even minor alterations in the structural construction of a fermentous complex, a transposition of some radicals in the prosthetic group or a breach of the architectonics of the proteinous component, initiate the abrupt lowering of catalytic activity of a given ferment. Hence, in the systemic organisation of ferments accordance between the structural construction of fnl. cells and the function of an entire given system is also being confirmed, which is natural for all stages and levels of the cascadous Evolution of Matter in general.
The spatial configuration of proteinous globules also determines by itself the second peculiarity of ferments - the high specificity of their action, that is monofunctioning. In other words, each ferment is capable of catalysing only its own, strictly definite reaction. Therefore, if there is some organic substance capable of several chemical combinations, then in the presence of this or that ferment it would react quickly only in one strictly definite direction, carrying out by that an appropriate algorithm of a given system.
Finally, the specific structure of proteins also determines by itself the third characteristic for ferments feature - their exclusive sensitivity to different kinds of influences. So, under certain physical or chemical influences of the most different kind (even then, when these influences do not affect peptidase and other covalent links of a proteinous molecule), the specific spatial architectonics of a globule may be changed and even broken, and its being in an ordered structural configuration can be irreversibly disrupted. In this case peptidase chains take a disorderly spatial disposition and protein from globular turns into a feebler state - the so named denaturalisation of proteins occurs, during which they lose several of those of their specific biologically important characteristics, caused by the definite architectonics of each type of proteinous molecule. At the same time fermentous characteristics of proteins vanish completely. However, during more gentle influences the catalytic activity of a fermentous complex may be kept till a certain extent, undergoing only some quantitative changes. Therefore any, even rather insignificant alterations of physical or chemical conditions in the surroundings, where a given fermentous reaction is taking place, are always reflected in the modification of its character and velocity. All these features of proteins constituted the foundation of the qualitative Evolution of Matter along the organisational level H, in the systems of which more and more extending fnl. differentiation of fng. units and structural integration of fnl. cells were taking place.
Each fng. unit, having got into a fnl. cell corresponding to it, is functioning within it for a certain period of time determined by the algorithms, afterwards it leaves it, giving up the place to a new fng. unit with the same fnl. characteristics. Having left one fnl. cell, the fng. unit is moving into another, dictated to it by algorithms, cell, etc. This process is going on continuously, periodically resuming and reiterating, which is why the impression of moving fng. units - substances through the systemic structure of each given formation is given, during which the system absorbs fng. units (or their complexes), certain time utilises them inside itself and then puts out beyond its limits. This perpetual motion is being regulated and tuned by an aggregate of appropriate algorithms of every system, while reactions constantly going in the system attach to it peculiar 'liveliness'. Due to this, during so called metabolism very plain and sometimes monotonous chemical reactions of oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, phosphorolysis, the breaking of carbonic links, etc., (which can be reproduced also outside the system of the organism) are organised in a certain way and matched in time by appropriate algorithms as well as subordinated to the functional interests of their system as the integrated unified whole. These reactions are taking place in systems of the level H not occasionally, not chaotically, but according to a strictly definite mutual sequence, fixed by algorithms. That colossal variety of organic compounds, which by nowadays is represented in the world of living creatures, is caused not by the diversity and complexity of separate individual reactions, but by the diversity of their combinations, and the modification of that sequence, in which they are going on in any cell of a living organism in this or that phase of its development. In other words, the evolution of systems of the present level of the organisation of Matter turned out to be even more dependent on the appearance of new algorithms, the perfection of structures of fnl. cells and the timely filling of them in with appropriate fng. units. The sequence of chemical reactions, caused by appropriate algorithms, is at the basis of both the synthesis and desintegration of alive substance, at the basis of such vital phenomena as fermentation, breathing, photosynthesis, etc. Molecules of sugar and oxygen, carbonic acid and water are in this case only initial and final links in the long chain of chemical transformations, while being originated as a result of one reaction an intermediate substance (fng. complex) immediately enters into the next strictly definite, for a given life process, reaction. If one changes this sequence, eliminates or substitutes though any one link in the chain of transformations, pre-determined by a given algorithm, the entire process as a whole changes absolutely or is even completely broken.
At the basis of the mechanism of these phenomena there is a tight synchronisation of the velocities of separate chemical reactions, constituting displacements of fng. units of lower sublevels from some fnl. cells to other ones. Any organic substance can react in very many directions, that is it has rather big and various possibilities, however their realisation can go with quite different velocities depending on the totality of those conditions, in which a given reaction is taking place. It is clear, that if in given conditions some reaction is going rather fast, but all the other potentially possible reactions are going relatively slowly, then the practical importance of these latter reactions in the whole process of metabolism proves to be quite insignificant. In other words, various ways of chemical transformations are opened before every organic substance of protoplasm, but practically each getting there from the milieu compound or every originating intermediate product would change during metabolism only in that direction in which they are reacting with the highest velocity. All the other slowly going reactions just have no time during the same period to be realised in any significant quantity.
Entering the process of the metabolism as reagents, fng. units - substratum are filling in with themselves fnl. cells destined strictly for them in the structure of a given system, in which at a certain moment of time according to the injunction of the algorithms they are entering into a complex compound with appropriate protein-ferment. Each such complex is an unstable formation, but reliable enough to accomplish some essential function. After having functioned, it is undergoing very quickly a further transformation, while the substratum is changing in an appropriate direction, that is fng. units composing it go over into other fnl. cells, and the ferment regenerates and can enter again into a complex with a new portion of the substratum for keeping up the possibility of the fulfilment of an essential function by a given systemic formation. Therefore, in order that any fng. unit could really participate in metabolism in systems of the level H, it should come into an interaction with protein, form with it a certain complex compound and only in this way realise its fnl. features. Owing to this, the direction in which any organic compound is changing during metabolism, depends not only on the individual molecular structure of composing fng. units and determining its fnl. features, but also on the fnl. cell, to which each fng. unit of the compound gets in and where it should form together with other fng. units - proteins a fnl. complex with new fnl. features, capable of fulfilling this or that new function, obeying the algorithms prevailing in a given system.
Because of the extremely fine specificity of fermentous proteins, each of them having strictly individual fnl. features, they can only get in strictly definite fnl. cells and, due to this, are capable of forming fnl. complexes only with definite fng. units of the previous sublevels as well as catalysing only certain individual reactions. Therefore, during the implementation of some life process, and moreover of the entire metabolism as a whole, thousands of individual proteins-ferments are participating, at the same time each of them is able to catalyse specifically only one individual reaction, and only in the aggregate, in a certain combination of their activity they create that natural order of phenomena, which is at the basis of the process of metabolism. So, the metabolism, going constantly in systems of any living organism, is the most complex ball of chemical transformations of interchange, where thousands of individual reactions, regulated by a given aggregate of algorithms, are being united into a commonly acting mechanism, and the essence of each reaction is to move this or that fng. unit from one fnl. cell of the structure of a system to another one, while the moments of transferences of fng. units along the cells are strictly coordinated all over the system, alternated in a strictly definite order and with strictly signified fng. units and fnl. cells participating in every transference. At the same time, the outer systemic and around subsystemic milieu or, in other words, the systemic surroundings by units of foregoing sublevels of Matter, are playing an important part in every reaction of the metabolism. So, any rise or drop of the temperature, any alteration of the acid milieu, of the oxidising potential or of the osmotic pressure, changes the ratio between the velocities of individual fermentous reactions which are taking place in the system of a given living organism, and therefore is changing their interconnection in time, that in its turn is reflecting in the alterations of periods of functioning of these or those fng. units. Thus, the systemic organisation of an alive substance is indissolubly linked with the around systemic organisation of the milieu and constitutes with it the united whole. Besides, the spatial organisation of fnl. cells in the structure of the alive substance has as well a very big influence on the order and direction of fermentous reactions basic for interchange. Hence, many tens and hundreds of thousands of chemical reactions, continually going in every living organism, are not only strictly coordinated between themselves in time by an innumerable number of times worked through algorithms, are not only combined in a unified order of the entire structural organisation of its system and of the around systemic milieu surrounding it, but the whole of this order itself is directed at keeping up within a certain period of time hyperfunctional features of the whole given system as a fng. unit of a higher level. Acquired anew meanwhile, fnl. features of proteinous substances can become clear only after the studying of the peculiarities of their functioning in an organism as fng. units of systems of a higher organisational level of Matter.
In connection with the fact that from the moment the qualitative forms of Matter enter into the so called 'live' phase of Evolution, the character of the organisation of systems became more complicated, besides the organising principles, characteristic for systems of the foregoing levels, such as:
1) the availability of strictly regulated quantity of fnl. cells, unified into a single structure of links,
2) of fng. units filling them in and appropriate to them,
3) of an aggregate of algorithms of formation, functioning and desintegration,
4) of power supply source for the process of the functioning of a system
for the organisational level H additional systems' forming factors became required. Due to a bigger complicity of its fnl. systems the extension of their apparently autonomous nature was going on, which practically constitutes only a bigger gap in levels of the organisation of a system itself and of the around systemic milieu and which gave ground to designate some of their features by the attaching of the half-word 'self': self-renewal, self-adjustment, self-power-supplying and almost self-destruction. The beginning of the development of appropriate subsystems in the general structure of an organism, responsible for providing this or that specific function, became the foundation of this autonomy. A bigger and bigger stratification of systems to subsystems, going because of a further differentiation of functions, made the structure of systems more complicated and required yet more precise intercoordination of its integrated components. Therefore an aggregate of algorithms of every system was increasing gradually in quantity, its qualitative composition was becoming better and better.
Everybody knows what an algorithm is. It is the order, strictly regulated in time and space, of the consecutive transferences of fng. units from one fnl. cell of the structure of a given level into another one. This order is compulsory for systems of any organisational level, and is pre-determined for each of their fng. units. Everything around us is subordinated to some algorithms. There are a lot of them - from the most simple to the incredibly complicated ones. Among ordinary everyday algorithms we can mention the algorithms of cooking (for example, of brewing tea, baking cakes, etc.), of manufacturing tables or chairs, the cultivating of potatoes plants, etc. Among super complicated ones we can indicate, for example, the algorithm of manufacturing an aircraft carrier. Therefore in an ordinary cooking book algorithms of cooking are enumerated, in sheet music - algorithms of the reproduction of musical works, and in technological plans of the construction of houses or cars, of building roads - algorithms of their construction. All the algorithms mentioned by us were drawn up by man during his practical activity. But who was drawing up the algorithms for creating fnl. systems of pre-organic and organic organisation of Matter? As already the algorithms of creation of an atom of hydrogen or a molecule of aminoacid are rather not simple. Certainly, nobody was inventing them. They were being drawn up by themselves, obeying the essential necessity, emitting from the action of the laws of the Evolution of Matter, and first of all, of its motion in the category of quality
As systemic structures were becoming more complicated already in the first period of the organisation of living forms of Matter, the duration of functioning of which is based, as it is known, on the principle of continual substitution in them of blocks of fng. units, at a certain moment of the organisational development a mechanism became required, that could provide the formation of such blocks within a comparatively short time in order to replace by them the blocks ending functioning in the fnl. cells without breaking fnl. features of an entire given system as a whole. For this purpose in systems a special subsystem was being singled out more and more, that was drawing up the algorithms of the formation of this or that block, its spatial location in the entire structure and a temporal sequence of transferences of fng. units of a given level from some fnl. cells to others. As it is known, in pre-organic systems their structures had a character of long duration, at the same time these summed up systemic formations were made up from fng. units of lower sublevels in accordance with their mainly physical features with the accumulation simultaneously of a big quantity of energy. The desintegration of such systems occurred after a long period of time, had a one time irregular character and served only for purposes of the general reconstruction of a macrosystem as a whole. Later, in the molecular organisational level, the order of composing of systemic formations besides the physical became regulated also by the chemical features of the fng. units entering into them, while with the growth of the systemic organisation less and less summed up energy was being accumulated (though per one fng. unit of each subsequent level the accumulation of energy was increasing considerably), and the compounds themselves had the character of shorter and shorter duration. In the over molecular systems, that were having more and more organic features, the drawing up of information about algorithms of formation and functioning became effected by fnl. subsystems, theoretically named nucleotides later.
So, in the process of the Evolution of Matter along the organisational level H in some areas of the surface of the planet the Earth from a certain moment of Time high-molecular material formations, capable of carrying out different functional loads of the new spectrum, started appearing. They were including in the structures of their subsystems the following organic chemical compounds: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleinous acids and other low-molecular organic substances. Besides, also inorganic substances, the cheif of which was water, were entering into them. As the actual point of the Evolution of Matter was advancing along the ordinate of time, the number of new systemic formations was growing, keeping a certain balance, and their systemic structure was improving. The systems of the level H were not separated organisationally from the foregoing levels, but were including their systemic formations integrally as fng. units in their fnl. cells. Due to the fact that the spatial development of the systems of the level H was limited not only by the area of the Earth's surface, but also by other factors of physical and chemical character as well (such as the quantity of the received radiant energy of the Sun, which varies unlike in different areas of the Earth's surface; the availability at a given place of a required spectrum of systemic formations of the foregoing levels, etc.), there was always a state, at which . Owing to this the Evolution of Matter had to be realised practically only through the motion along the coordinate of quality
(), as the result of which the improvement of systems of the organisational level H continued to have a relatively accelerated character. As the outcome of this process was the appearance of a huge quantity of various in form and by functional significance, but of the same type by systemic structure formations, which in the modern understanding we unify in a single notion - the organic cell.
As it is known, different cells have the similarity not only in structure, but also in chemical composition as well, that indicates, in fact, that their origin was subordinated to the common laws of the Evolution of Matter. The average content of chemical elements in cells is the following (in percentage):
oxygen 65 - 75 carbon 15 - 18 hydrogen 8 - 10 nitrogen 1.5 - 3.0 phosphorus 0.2 - 1.0 potassium 0.15 - 0.4 sulphur 0.15 - 0.2 chlorine 0.05 - 0.1
calcium 0.04 - 2.0 magnesium 0.02 - 0.03 sodium 0.02 - 0.03 ferrum 0.01 - 0.015 zinc 0.0003 cuprum 0.0002 iodine 0.0001 fluorine 0.0001
From 104 elements of Mendeleev's periodical system more than 60 are found in cells. Atoms of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen fill in 98% of fnl. cells of cellular subsystems. 1.9% are left to atoms of potassium, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, calcium and ferrum. Less than 0.1% of fnl. cells are occupied by other substances (micro elements). Various combinations of the said elements give several types of intracellular subsystemic formations, which every cell includes into its fnl. cells as fng. units in the following proportions (in percentage):
Inorganic water 70 - 80 inorganic
1.0 - 1.5
Organic proteins 10 - 20 fats 1.0 - 5.0 carbohydrates 0.2 - 2.0 nucleinous acids 1.0 - 2.0 ATF and other low-
0.1 - 0.5
All the above stated substances, being themselves very complex in respect to the structure, are not piled up in a cell together in some chaotic disorder, but as fng. units are filling in fnl. cells located in a strictly definite order and destined for each of them in a uniform structure. While functioning they accomplish their precisely defined micromotions inside a microvolume of a cell's space, regulated by appropriate intracellular algorithms, at the same time there is an undoubted connection of these motions in space with both the absolute and relative courses of time. Each substance of a cell as a fng. unit carries out a strictly definite functional load and has its own periods of functioning, regulated by appropriate algorithms. All their various combinations constitute the unified, finely adjusted cellular mechanism.
Carbohydrates, fats and lipoids are attributed to the simplest structural intracellular formations. Fnl. cells of their structures are being filled in mainly by atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The function of carbohydrates is the most simple. Dissociating to CO2 and water, with emitting from each gram 4.2 large calories of energy, they supply with the essential mass of these fng. units appropriate fnl. cells of the structure of cells.
The role of fatty compounds is more complicated. They add to cells hydrophobias (waterproof) characteristics, and are heat-resistors. In the case of necessity, they become, like carbohydrates, a source of accumulated energy, decomposing up to CO2 and H2O. The dissociating of 1 gram gives 9.3 large calories.
Proteins are some more complex structural formations. Besides carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in fnl. cells of their structures there are also atoms of nitrogen, sulphur and other substances. Proteins are macromolecules combining tens, hundreds of thousands of atoms. (So, if the molecular mass of benzol is equal 78, then of protein of eggs is
36 000, of protein of muscles - 1 500 000, etc.)
The systemic organisation of proteins has its peculiarities. Atoms entering into them fill in the fnl. cells destined for them not one by one, but by the whole aminoacidic blocks, having a stable character of intrasystemic links. There are altogether 20 of such fng. units - blocks. All of them have different systemic structures and carry out different functions. Therefore the formation of proteins has a stage by stage character.
At first aminoacids are being formed, which by means of peptidase links are connected into proteinous chains with the giving off of water. Each proteinous chain has on average of up to 200 - 300 aminoacidic blocks in different combinations. It is enough to substitute in a chain one type of aminoacids for another one, as the entire structure of a given protein, and with it its functional features as well are changing. The structure of a proteinous chain of aminoacidic blocks has the form of a globule, that adds to long chains of protein a compact appearance and mobility during spatial displacements. In the packing of a polypeptidase chain there is nothing accidental or chaotic, each protein has the definite, always constant character of packing. In other words, the structure of every protein has a strictly definite spatial location of its fnl. cells, which are being filled in by fng. units - aminoacidic blocks strictly corresponding to them. At the same time each structure of protein, being a fng. unit in a system of a higher order and occupying in it a fnl. cell corresponding to it, carries out there its own function, characteristic only of it. As a rule, proteinous structures are the most active reagents of chemical reactions, continually going inside cells, and therefore their most important role is being catalysts of these reactions. Almost every chemical reaction in cells is being catalysed by its own particular protein-ferment, the catalytic activity of which is defined by a small part - its active centre (a combination of aminoacidic radicals). The structure of a ferment's active centre and the structure of a substratum precisely correspond to each other. They fit to each other as a key to its lock. Because of the availability of a structural conformity between the active centre of a ferment and substratum they can tightly approach each other, which actually provides the possibility of a reaction between them.
To other important intracellular formations we should attribute nucleinous acids: deoxyribonucleic - DNA and ribonucleic - RNA. Their main function is to ensure the process of the synthesis of the cells' proteins. The length of a DNA's molecule is a hundred and thousand times as big as the biggest proteinous molecule and can reach several tens and hundreds of micrometers, while the length of the biggest proteinous molecule does not exceed 0.1 mcm. The width of a DNA's double spiral is only 20 . The molecular mass is tens and even hundreds of millions. Every DNA's chain is a polymer, monomers of which are molecules of four types of nucleotides. In other words, DNA is a polynucleotide, in the chain of which in a strictly definite order (and always constant for every DNA) nucleotides are following, thus being fng. units in the structure of DNA's fnl. cells. Therefore, if though in one of fnl. cells a different fng. unit - nucleotide is placed, fnl. characteristics of the entire structure would change. In every DNA's chain (an average molecular weight of 10 million) there are up to 30 thousand nucleotides (the molecular weight of each being 345), owing to that the number of isomers (at 4 types of nucleotides) is very great.
Because of the principle of complementarity as the basis of the formation of a DNA's double spiral, a DNA's molecule is capable of redoubling. During this process the two chains are separating, forming at the same time two double chains of fnl. cells, only one row of which is filled in by fng. units, and the other one becomes free. At the next stage dissociated nucleotides from the system's surroundings fill in free fnl. cells which correspond to them in both spirals. As a result of the reduplication in place of one molecule of DNA, two molecules originate of quite the same nucleotides' composition, as the original one. One chain in each molecule of DNA originated anew is left from the original molecule, the other one is being synthesised newly. In such a way, together with the structure, the passing of fnl. characteristics of DNA from a motherly cell to a daughter's one is occurring.
Graphically it looks like this:
The molecules of RNA are also polymers as are the DNA's, but in contradistinction to them they have one spiral of fnl. cells and not two. RNA carry out several functions in cells including:
1) the transport one (they are transporting aminoacidic blocks to locations of the synthesis of proteins);
2) the informational one (they are transferring the information about the structure of proteins);
3) the ribosomal one.
One more very important nucleotide in the structure of living cells is adenosinthreephosphorous acid - ATPHA, the content of which in cells varies from 0.04 to 0.2 - 0.5%. Its peculiarity consists in the fact, that during a chipping off of one molecule of phosphorous acid, ATPHA turns into ADP (adenosindiphosphorous acid) with the emitting of 40 kilo joules of energy from 1 gr.-molecule.
All the above mentioned organic substances are complex in their structure and in systemic organisation formations, but they in their also turn enter as fng. units into fnl. subsystems of the cell's integrated system. To the cell's basic subsystems the following ones are attributed:
The outward membrane of the cell. It is regulating the entering of ions and molecules into the cell's structure and their leaving it into the system's surroundings. Such an exchange of molecules and ions, that is of different fng. units, between the cell's system and its surroundings is going continually. One can distinguish the phagocyting, the taking up by the membrane of large particles of a substance, and the pinocyting, the absorbing of water and water solutions. Through the outward membrane the products of the cell's vital activity leave it, that is fng. units having functioned in the cell's subsystems.
The cytoplasm. It is the internal semi-liquid habitat of the cell, in the systemic volume of which the cell's internal structure is expanded, that is its core, all organoids (or organelles), inclusions and vacuoles. The cytoplasm consists of water with salts and various organic substances dissolved, among which proteins predominate. The cytoplasm's structure consists of fng. units that are not connected toughly but are moving freely along its entire volume. The fng. units filling them in are transferred, when it is necessary, from them into the fnl. cells of organoids. Therefore the cytoplasm's main functions are accumulative and transporting.
The endoplasmatic net. This is the cell's organoid, constituting a complex system of canals and cavities, piercing the entire cytoplasm of the cell. On membranes of the smooth endoplasmatic net the synthesis of fats and carbohydrates takes place, which are being accumulated in accumulative fnl. cells of its canals and cavities and then are being transported to different organoids of the cell, where they occupy as fng. units appropriate fnl. cells of their structures. On the membranes of canals and cavities there is also a great number of small rounded bodies - ribosomes.
Each ribosome consists of two small particles, into the composition of which proteins and RNA enter. Every cell has several thousand ribosomes each. All proteins, entering into the composition of a given cell, are being synthesised on ribosomes by means of the assembling of proteinous molecules from aminoacids, being in the cytoplasm. The synthesis of proteins is a complex process of the filling in with aminoacidic blocks of appropriate fnl. cells of their structures, which is being accomplished simultaneously by a group of several tens of ribosomes, or by a polyribosome. Synthesised proteins are being accumulated at first in the canals and cavities of the granulated endoplasmatic net, and then are being transported towards those subsystems of the cell, where fnl. cells destined for them are located. The endoplasmatic net and polyribosomes constitute a single mechanism of biosynthesis, accumulation and transportation of proteins.
The mitochondrias. This is an organoid, the main function of which consists in the synthesis of ATPHA, representing a universal source of energy, which is essential for the accomplishment of chemical processes continually taking place inside the cell. The number of mitochondrias in the cell varies from several to hundreds of thousands. Inside mitochondrias there are ribosomes and nucleinous acids, and also a great quantity of various ferments. Synthesised ATPHA is filling in transport fnl. cells of the cytoplasm and gets going towards the core and organoids of the cell.
The plastids. They are organoids of vegetable cells. They exist in several types. With the assistance of one of them, chloroplasts, because of a pigment (chlorophyll) entering into their composition, the cells of plants are capable of using the light energy of the Sun to synthesise organic substances (carbohydrates) from inorganic ones. This process, as it is known, has the name of photosynthesis.
The Golgy's complex. This is an organoid of all vegetable and animal cells, in which the accumulation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates takes place with their subsequent transportation to appropriate fnl. cells both inside and outside the cell.
The lithesomes. This is an organoid, being in all cells, that consists from a complex of ferments capable of breaking up proteins, fats and carbohydrates. This is the main function of lithesomes. In every cell there are tens of lithesomes, participating in the breaking up of already having functioned or accumulative systemic formations as well as of those ones that get into the cell from without by means of the phagocyting and pinocyting. As a result of breaking up fng. units leave fnl. cells of being broken up structures, are being accumulated in fnl. cells of accumulative systems of a given cell, and then are being transported to fnl. cells of its new systemic formations. Having been broken up with the assistance of lithesomes, having functioned the cell's structures are moved away out of its bounds. The formation of new lithesomes takes place in the cell continually. The ferments, which are functioning in lithesomes, as any other proteins are being synthesised on ribosomes of the cytoplasm. Then these ferments get through the canals of the endoplasmatic net to a Golgy's complex, in cavities and tubes of which fnl. cells of lithesomes' structures are being formed. After being formed the lithesomes come off from tubes' ends and get into cytoplasm.
The cell's centre. This is an organoid, which is located in one of parts of the concentrated cytoplasm. Two centrioles are in it, which play an important role during the cell-fission.
The cell's structure has other organoids as well: flagellums, cilias, etc., and also the cell's inclusions (carbohydrates, fats and proteins).
At the same time the cells, being themselves very complex systemic formations, in their turn are fng. units, filling in fnl. cells of hypersystems of the following levels of the organisation of Matter. Owing to this in the systemic organisation of cells a mechanism is envisaged which allows within a relatively short period of time the creation of systemic formations analogous to them. As a result the cell's cycle includes two periods:
1) The cell-fission (a mitosis), in the process of which two daughter cells are being created;
2) The period between two cell-fissions - the interphase - the actual duration of a cell's functioning.
The cell's core plays an important role in the cell-fission, being in every cell and constituting a complex fnl. subsystem. The core has the core's membrane, through which proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleinous acids, water and various ions get into and out of it. Having entered a core, they are filling in fnl. cells of the core's juice as well as of nucleoluses and chromatin. In nucleoluses the synthesis of RNA is taking place, but they themselves are being formed only in the interphase. The chromatin constitutes a uniform substance, serving as an accumulative subsystem, with the help of which the formation of chromosomes is being carried out during the core-fission.
The chromosomes are the main mechanism of the cell, where so named inherited information, which includes a chemical recording of the sequence of fnl. cells in proteins' structures of a given cell, is being accumulated, kept and given out. The above said information is being kept in DNA's molecules, which are situated in chromosomes. Thus, DNA's molecules constitute a chemical recording of structures of all the variety of proteins. On the lengthy thread of a DNA's molecule a recording of information about the sequence of fnl. cells of various proteins' structures is following one after another. A part of DNA, having the information about the structure of a protein, it is usual to name a gene. A DNA's molecule constitutes a collection of several hundreds or thousands of genes. The diameter of chromosomes is not big and amounts on average to 140 , their length, repeating the length of DNA's molecules, can be more than 1 mm. In the middle of the interphase period the synthesis of DNA occurs, as a result of which a chromosome is doubling.
The most important function of chromosomes is to be a repository of the recordings of structures and accordingly of algorithmic abilities of the cell's fnl. subsystems with the assistance of the mechanism of formation of proteinous fng. units. In the course of time as functions of this or that type of organic systems are increasing, the recording in chromosomes is changing and perfecting itself, meeting the requirements of laws of the fnl. development of Matter. In a direct dependence on a molecular recording of chromosomes' DNA through the mechanism of synthesising of proteinous molecules, all the processes of vital activity of cells are occurring. The number of chromosomes is constant for each species of animals and plants, that is each cell of any organism which belongs to the same species contains an absolutely definite number of chromosomes (rye - 14, man - 46, hen - 78, etc.). The chromosomes' composition, which the core of a cell contains, always has twin chromosomes. So 46 chromosomes of a man form 23 pairs, in each of them two identical chromosomes are united. Chromosomes of different pairs differ from each other in form and place of location. As a result of mitosis two daughter cells are being created, which by structure are fully similar to a mother one. Each of them has exactly the same chromosomes and the same number of them as the mother cell. In this way a complete communication of all the inherited information to each of the daughter cores is provided. The core and all the organoids of a cell's cytoplasm are interacting as a single system.
All cells have a similar type of the structure: the core, mitochondrias, the Golgy's complex, the endoplasmatic net, ribosomes and other organoids. However, before becoming such a perfect system, which it is nowadays, the cell has passed a long way through the evolution, marked by appropriate spaces on ordinates of t and ft of the tensor of the Evolution of Matter. In the beginning it was a part of non-cellular organisms unknown to us, then of imperfect unicellular and multi-cellular organisms, including bacteria and blue-green algae, and finally it reached the perfection of a complex cellular mechanism, characteristic of the representatives of the vegetable and animal world contemporary with us. Because of the motion of Matter along the ordinate of quality during the process of the evolution of the cell a great variety of its types was originated, each of them was provided with strictly definite fnl. features and correspond to the definite point on this ordinate.
At the same time from a certain moment this process started going simultaneously with the beginning of the development of fnl. systems of a higher organisational level, fnl. cells of which the cells began to fill in as fng. units. As a result the cell turned into a complex systemic formation, to keep up fnl. features of which complex chemical processes are taking place continually inside and outside it. The permanency of processes is connected with the fact that the time of the functioning of fng. units with the growth of their molecular weight does not coincide more and more with the time of the existence of fnl. cells of structures, that they fill in, as in a limited space of displacement of fng. units the time of their existence is in direct dependence on their fnl. mass. Besides, the permanency of processes is caused by the fact that most chemical reactions taking place in a cell have an irreversible character. For all these reactions the greatest organisation and order are characteristic: each reaction is going at a strictly definite place at a strictly definite time in a strictly definite sequence. Molecules of ferments are located on membranes of mitochondrias and of the endoplasmatic net in the order in which reactions are going.
In a cell there are about one thousand ferments, with the assistance of which two types of reactions are going: of synthesis and of desintegration. As the main (creating) type of reactions should be considered reactions of synthesis, in the process of which complex molecular compounds are being formed, as fng. units filling in fnl. cells of the cell's subsystemic structures. So, for replacement of each functioned out molecule of protein, that has left this or that fnl. cell, a new molecule of protein fills the vacated place, by structure and chemical composition and accordingly by its fnl. features fully identical to the previous fng. unit. It means, that a newly synthesised fng. unit is able (or should be able) to take an identical part in any algorithms, characteristic for a given fnl. cell.
The synthesis of fng. units is carried out with the assistance of the functioning of the cell's special subsystems on the basis of the coded gene recording of DNA. Fluctuatal deviations, which happen during this, in case of their positive effect are being recorded by the reverse connection in a gene recording and serve to the purposes of a further perfection of a given systemic structure. In the event of a negative effect from a newly synthesised fng. unit the implementation of a part of fnl. algorithms is being violated and in case the system is not able to eliminate that, the unproper functioning of an appropriate subsystem can result in the end in the destruction of the structure of a given cell as a whole. In this way the cell's organisational system permits it to keep up a permanent presence of appropriate fng. units in fnl. cells of their subsystems, that keeps its structure and by what the cell's ability to implement algorithms of fnl. cells of systems of a higher order is provided, where it enters as a fng. macro unit. All reactions of biosynthesis (reactions of assimilation) take place according to the general theory of systems by absorbing energy of motion in space, which as if getting stuck in the structure of the cell's system is being transformed into energy of connection between its fng. units.
The other type of reactions - reactions of desintegration - takes place with a simultaneous decrease in the energy of connection, being transformed into energy of motion in space. During reactions of dissimilation, fng. units of the cell's subsystems, being systemic formations of a lower order, having functioned out, decompose to fng. units of their sublevel, ready if necessary to enter into new synthesising reactions in order to form new structures - fng. units of a higher organisational level. Both types of reactions are closely interconnected and constitute a single process, directed to filling in fnl. cells of the cell's structure with active appropriate fng. units, which finally provides the maintenance at a proper level of fnl. features of the cell as a whole.
One of the main and the most complex types of synthesising reactions is biosynthesis of proteins, taking place in the cell continually during the entire duration of its existence. During the process of functioning of the cell a part of its proteins, having participated in catalytic reactions, are being denatured gradually, their structure and consequently their functions are being violated and they are being moved away from their fnl. cells and then from the cell itself. Their places in fnl. cells are being occupied by newly synthesised proteinous molecules completely identical by its fnl. features to fng. units having emptied places for them. Taking into consideration that there are a great number of types of proteinous molecules, the mechanism of their synthesising, being perfected during a long period of time, in the end turned into a specialised subsystem of the cell with the precise list of algorithms of functioning.
The program of synthesis of proteins, that is the information about their structure, recorded and kept in DNA, is sent to ribosomes with the help of informational RNA (i-RNA), being synthesised on DNA and precisely copying its structure. To each aminoacid a section of a DNA's chain corresponds from three nucleotides being situated alongside: A-C-A (cysteine), T-T-T (lysine), A-A-C (leucine), etc. The number of possible combinations from 4 nucleotides by 3 equals 64, though in all 20 aminoacids are used. The sequence of nucleotides of an i-RNA repeats precisely the sequence of nucleotides of one of chains of gene recording, while from each gene it is possible to make any number of copies of RNA. The recording of information on an RNA, that is the process of 'transcription', takes place during the simultaneous synthesising of an i-RNA, which is being carried out with the help of the principle of complementation. As a result, the chain of an i-RNA being formed by content and sequence of its nucleotides constitutes a precise copy of the content and sequence of nucleotides of one of the chains of DNA. The molecules of an i-RNA are directed then to ribosomes, where aminoacids also come, being delivered from without of the cell in already ready form. Aminoacids get to a ribosome accompanied by transport RNAs (t-RNA), consisting on average of 70 - 80 nucletidic links, in 4 - 7 places complemented to each other. To one of a t-RNA's ends an aminoacid is being connected and in the upper part of the bend a triplet of nucleotides is fixed, which by code is corresponding to a given aminoacid. For every aminoacid there is its own t-RNA, that is there are also 20 varieties of them.
The synthesis of proteins and of nucleinous acids takes place on the basis of reactions of matrix synthesis. By that the giving of fnl. features of fng. units being replaced by newly formed compounds is provided. New molecules are being synthesised in precise correspondence with the plan, which is kept put in the structure of already existing molecules. Therefore in these reactions a precise, strictly specific sequence of monomeric links in polymers that are being synthesised is provided. What is taking place here is a directed pulling together of monomers to a certain place of the cell - into fnl. cells of a being newly formed polymer, while the location of fnl. cells themselves is being pre-determined by the structural organisation of a matrix being copied. Macromolecules of nucleinous acids of DNA and RNA are playing the role of a matrix in matrix reactions. Monomeric molecules (nucleotides or aminoacids) in accordance with the principle of complementation are being located and fixed on the matrix in a strictly definite, given order. Then a 'sewing together' of monomeric links into a polymeric chain takes place, and a ready polymer is released by the matrix. After that the matrix is ready for the assembling of a new polymeric molecule. With the help of a matrix type of reactions the reproduction of the same type compounds - fng. units of a given system - is being carried out. The necessity of the reproduction of the same type of fng. units is traced through all levels of the organisation of Matter and is one of the main regularities of the general theory of systems.
The information about the structure of a protein, recorded on an i-RNA as a sequence of nucleotides, is being transferred further as a sequence of aminoacids into a polypeptidase chain being synthesised, that is the process of 'translation' is taking place. During the assembling of a proteinous molecule, a ribosome creeps along an i-RNA, after it the second one, then the third, etc. Each of them synthesises quite the same protein, programmed on a given i-RNA. When the ribosome passes along an i-RNA from one end to the other - the synthesis of a protein is over. After that the ribosome goes on to another i-RNA and the protein is directed through the endoplasmatic net into a free fnl. cell with features that correspond to it, which it fills in as a fng. unit.
The synthesis of proteins in a cell takes place continuously. All the ribosomes located simultaneously on one i-RNA are united into a polyribosome. The ribosome works along an i-RNA taking 'short steps': triplet after triplet the RNA is in contact with it. For the sewing of a polypeptidase chain in the ribosome there is the protein-synthethasa. Molecules of a t-RNA, passing through a ribosome, touch by its codic end the place of contact of the ribosome with an i-RNA. If a codic triplet of the t-RNA turns out to be complementary to a triplet of the i-RNA, an aminoacid delivered by the t-RNA moves over from its fnl. cell into a fnl. cell of a molecule of a protein that is being synthesised, thus becoming a fng. unit of its structure. By this the most important rule of the construction of fnl. systems is provided - the placing of a given fng. unit into a fnl. cell strictly corresponding to it or, on the contrary, the filling in of a fnl. cell with a fng. unit strictly corresponding to it. Therefore, the mechanism of the synthesis of proteins, being available in any cell, provides a full guarantee that a given aminoacid, being transported by a t-RNA, will get only into a fnl. cell corresponding to it of a protein's structure or, on the contrary, that into a coming up on the ribosome next in turn empty fnl. cell of a protein being synthesised only a fng. unit - a required aminoacid corresponding to it by its fnl. features - will get.
After the filling in of a fnl. cell next in turn of a synthesised protein, the ribosome is making one more step along the i-RNA, getting this way the information about fnl. features of a fnl. cell which is next in turn in a being filled structure. The t-RNA with the vacated working t-fnl. cell leaves into the intracellular space, where it takes a new molecule of aminoacid corresponding to it in order to carry it again to any of the fng. ribosomes. The molecules of proteins are synthesised on average in about 1 - 2 minutes. This process takes place during the whole period of a cell's existence. All the reactions of the synthesis of proteins are being catalysed by special ferments, up to reactions of seizure by t-RNAs. All the reactions of synthesis are endothermic and therefore each phase of the biosynthesis is always linked with consumption of ATPHA.
Any cell keeps its composition and all its fnl. features at a relatively constant level. So the content of ATPHA in cells is 0.04% and this magnitude is kept stable. The starting and ending of processes, providing the keeping up of fnl. features of a cell, happen in it automatically. The basis of auto regulation of these processes is a special signal subsystem of cells, which uses for these purposes the fnl. features of fng. units of previous sublevels, that is electromagnetic characteristics of electrons, atoms, etc. Therefore in any cell there is always a certain quantity of various ions and other charged particles, which as a whole creates bioelectrical chains, microfields, etc. An alteration of the bioelectrical potential though in one of links of any subsystem of a cell serves as the signal for the beginning or ending of this or that biochemical reaction, of this or that transference of fng. units along fnl. cells of various subsystems of the cell. The availability of the subsystem of signal bioelectrical connection in the structure of cells as well as using for these purposes fnl. features of fng. units of lower sublevels (electrons, ions and others) serve as one more confirmation of the presence of a close interlink of all levels of the single systemic organisation of the evolving Matter.
So, the final result of the Evolution of Matter along the level H was the formation of the most complex systemic structure - the organic cell. The structure of every cell includes a strictly definite number of various fnl. subsystems, each of them carries out a characteristic function strictly definite only of it, providing a normal functioning of the entire cell as a whole. Each subsystem of a cell has its strictly definite structure, that includes systemic formations of a lower organisational level, having a polymolecular composition with their specific laws of functioning. Each molecular structure includes atomic systems with their specific laws of functioning. Atomic structures are based on the laws of the functioning of subatomic subsystems. And so infinitely it is into the structural depth of Matter. All the indicated piling up of fnl. systems and subsystems is organised in a most fine way in space and time with only one purpose - to provide the revealing at a strictly definite place in a strictly definite period of time of the fng. characteristics of a peculiar material formation - the organic cell.
From this very moment Matter entered into a new phase of its qualitative evolution - the creation of self-regulating and self-governing macrosystems.
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