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Igor I. Kondrashin

Dialectics of Matter

II. General Theory of Material Systems

Systemness of Matter

     All the variety of reality surrounding us is representing qualitatively different forms of Matter developed in space. But location of the forms in space is not accidental, it is pre-determined by the organizational structure of one of the systems into which this or that material spot (or a group of spots) enters as a component.
     Consequently Matter is not an arbitrary piling up of qualitative forms disorderly spread in space and alternating in time. On the contrary, Matter exists in the shape of various types of numerous systemic formations which are very complicated in structure and which are situated in permanent interconnection and interaction, while the order of their organization is strictly regulated by the course of the Evolution of Matter itself through the motion in quality-space-time.
     Each part of any system has definite qualitative features and is performing corresponding functional assignment. The period of functioning of every part of a system is pre-determined by motion along the ordinate of time; displacement in space ensures relative one to another expansion of functional systems' parts; appearance of new qualitative features serves as a factor of further systemformation of Matter. Thus Matter exists not in the form of statically fixed frivolous formations but constitutes a kind of interlinked combination of dynamic systems that constantly and organisationally are transforming and perfecting in accordance with motion in quality-space-time. Seeming staticness of some systemic formations is only a consequence of comparative continuance of their functioning period.
     Depending on their functional maturity, one can separate all systemic formations into:
     1. Forming (originating);
     2. Developing;
     3. Stable;
     4. Dying away;
     5. Dead off;
while each variety of systems as a rule passes through all the above stated phases of their existence.
     During periods of forming and dying away summary peculiarities of material formations are prevailing in systems based predominantly on motion in space-time. Developing and particularly stable systems have a more integral character that is signified in a precise interconnection of their structures' components by strictly definite actualised functions. Motion in quality-time attaches to these or those components of a system additive characteristic that gradually are increasing objective requirement in this system's reorganisation.
     Now it is possible to separate all systemic diversity of Matter conceptually into a line of organisational levels uniting systemformations of the same type of creation. An alteration of a state of a system of any level characterized by relative displacements of its components in space-time constitutes a functional event. Appearance of new functions as a consequence of motion in quality-time, in proportion as reorganisation of a system is going, determines an evolving process that can be traced through the whole expanse of the Evolution of Matter along the levels of her organisation while the direction of this process is: from summary systems of low level to integral systems of higher level. The whole totality of systemic processes and events pre-determines the motion of the actual point of counting off along the coordinates of quality-space-time and as a result of that the evolution of material substance is being realised.

Functional Cell and Functioning Unit

     For better comprehension of the principle of intrasystemic interlink of components of each material formation let us examine peculiarities of the composition of any system. For clarity we shall take a model of a system with the simplest structure.
     For this purpose let us be carried away by thinking into an absolutely 'empty' field of space filled in with a hypothetical uniform 'ether' consisting of a number of material spots. As the given ether has definite space parameters, it means that it constitutes a material substance and is characterised by definite qualitative features described with a strictly defined function, and this function will be the same for any spatial volumes of the given ether due to its similar qualitative feature. Therefore if we move away some part of the ether from the volume of space occupied by it and replace it with another equivalent in spatial magnitude and qualitative characteristic part of the ether from some other field of space then the function of the given spatial volume will remain unchanged due to qualitative uniformity of both mutually replacing portions of the ether, that is to say the general functional background of the given formation will not be transgressed. This feature of material systems is one of the basics.
     That spatial volume from where we have moved away and then where we placed in again a portion of hypothetical ether is designated a functional cell (briefly - fnl. cell) of the structure of the given systemformation and the portion of the ether itself - its functioning unit (fng. unit).
     As from the very beginning we have agreed that the volume of space being examined by us is fully filled with the ether it means that any absolute motion in space-time by the moment of our examination had terminated (). In order to secure further existence of material substance, which is impossible to get without the entire absolute motion, Matter has to make the next step in her own Evolution in the third form of motion - to realise certain displacement along the ordinate of quality ().
     Consequently 'elementary' spots of the ether located in space-time relatively one to another in a definite order start to be re-grouped according to certain regularities, forming structures of concentrations of material spots of another, higher than the structure of the ether, systemic order, and having their own describing function corresponding to their new qualitative characteristics.
     We are not interested yet in the mechanism of systemformation of concentrations but the fact that these accumulations, absorbing a determined part of elementary spots of the ether, have other, different from the initial and characteristic only for them intersystemic structure and motion, is very important for us.
     Now the material spots of the field of space chosen by us are included concurrently into systemic formations of two different organisational levels. At places where the material spots are located in free from newly formed concentrations fields of space, they continue to constitute the initial ether. Conversely, at places where the formation of the material spots into concentrations added new qualitative characteristic to them, fields of space appeared described by a quite different function.
     After all that, if we move away one of the concentrations (fng. unit) from a part of structural space (fnl. cell) and replace it with a sum of material spots equal to it in volume and organised similarly to the system of the ether then such a replacement will not be equivalent due to the difference of functional characteristics of systemic formations of the first and the second levels. For this reason any not equivalent replacement of fng. units always results in corresponding modification of the fnl. background of the given formation. And on the contrary if we, instead of a removed concentration, place into its fnl. cell another of exactly the same concentration of material spots then the functional characteristics of the given part of the system as well as its fnl. background will not change. These regularities of systemformation along with other ones are the basis of the creation of all material systems surrounding us constituting entelehic structures of fnl. cells, each of which incorporates a precise list of definite algorithms. Material formations filling in corresponding fnl. cells in the capacity of fng. units realise during the process of their functioning the required algorithms, ensuring by that the existence of the whole given integral system.
     Fnl. cells in all levels of the organisation of Matter are not static but are originated because of balanced modification of intrasystemic potential now at one place, now at another of spatial-temporal continuance.
     Fng. units permanently drawn by them perform corresponding displacements in space-time. Therefore the motion of Matter in quality-space-time one should consider as perpetual motion of the whole assemblage of fng. units to spatial-temporal location of corresponding fnl. cells because only there with their assistance the realisation of those or other fnl. algorithms can happen, which is actually essential to material substance to ensure its existence and realise this or that phase of its evolution.

Principles of Systemic Formation of Matter

     Principle 1    All the motion of Matter in quality comes to systemic differentiation of functions of her formations entailing their systemic-structural integration.

     Principle 2    Every material formation has qualitative characteristic typical only of it, described with a strictly definite function and which it reveals in the process of its functioning as part of some system of an organisational level n. Not isolated material formations having fnl. features of the same systemic level enter into an interlink reflecting the process of systemic integration of Matter.

     Principle 3    Every material formation constituting an aggregate of interconnected differentiated elements - fng. units structurally combines them into a material system of an organisational level n. Each element - fng. unit of level n is a microsystemic formation of an aggregate of differentiated elements - fng. units of an organisational level n-1 with specific for them functional characteristics. At the same time a steady integral system of level n can constitute a differentiated element - fng. unit of a structure of a macrosystemic formation of a higher organisational level n+1, able to realise corresponding algorithms of a fnl. cell it occupies.
     Thus the whole systemic organisation of material substance divided into different levels has obviously expressed cascaded character and every new integrational phase of differentiation of functions reflects the next stage in turn of the cascaded Evolution of Matter.

     Principle 4    Every functional cell differs from another not similar to it fnl. cell by its spectrum of algorithms of functioning that can be realised only with the aid of fng. units filling in cells. That is why a sought for a fng. unit should have the corresponding enumeration of functional potentialities in order to carry out algorithms typical for a given fnl. cell.

     Principle 5    A modification of functional features (quality) of any system of level n is a consequence of a modification of its internal structure characterised by the spatial-temporal location of fnl. cells it consists of and their algorithmic interlink. And vice versa, any modification of internal structure of a system of level n entails a modification of its functional features (quality).

     Principle 6    Every material formation constituting some fng. unit "a" can reveal its fnl. features only being located into a corresponding to it fnl. cell "A" of a spatial-temporal continuance of a structure of a system of level n. At the same time a system of level n can be considered complete and function normally only on condition that all fnl. cells A, B, C... of its structure will be filled with corresponding fng. units "a", "b", "c"..., through the functioning of which the cells realise functional algorithms characteristic of them.

     Principle 7    After replacement in a fnl. cell "A" of a system of level n of some fng. unit "a" to another similar to it fng. unit "a" the functional features of the whole systemic formation will not change. On the contrary, after replacement in a fnl. cell of a system of some fng. unit "a" to a qualitatively different from it fng. unit "b" of the same organisational level n the functional features of the whole given system that is its fnl. background will change accordingly.
     And really if in a molecule of water H2O to move away an included in the composition atom of oxygen from its fnl. cell and instead of it to place there another atom of oxygen then the functional characteristics of the systemic formation - the molecule of water - will not change because of this. If one places an atom of sulphur qualitatively different from the atom of oxygen into the free fnl. cell then the functional features of the given molecule will change since after that it will have the corresponding characteristics of hydrogen sulphide H2S, but not of water.

     Principle 8    Every material formation becomes a fng. unit in a fnl. cell of a structure of a system of level n only in the case that it has a stable systemic completeness of a level n-1, being expressed in the presence of a definite spectrum of fnl. features reflecting the functional differentiation of subsystems of a macrosystem. Being in the possession of only a part of systemic fnl. features is forcing the fng. unit to occupy any free fnl. cell corresponding to it in a structure of organisational level n+1 while its autonomous, out of systemic existence becomes practically impossible. Each organised material formation of level n can realise its individual fnl. features only in the process of functioning in the capacity of a fng. unit in one of the fnl. cells corresponding to it of a system of level n+1 but outwardly the complex fnl. features of the whole new systemic formation will be already displayed.
     So atoms of oxygen being possessed of a definite spectrum of fnl. features practically cannot exist in a free condition and have to fill in fnl. cells of molecular structures of, for example, oxygen O2 or ozone O3 or some other chemical compound which includes atoms of oxygen and after that outwardly already the fnl. features of molecules of these compounds are being displayed. Accordingly an atom of oxygen having occupied a fnl. cell in a molecule of water is realising its fnl. features only as a fng. unit of the given systemic formation and its individual characteristic becomes indistinguishable from the spectrum of fnl. features of a system that had absorbed it. That is why in practice it is impossible to distinguish, for example, in a molecule of water the specific qualitative peculiarities of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. It is possible to do this only after having removed the said atoms from fnl. cells of the molecule but then the atoms will have already other "out of systemic" indications.

     Principle 9    Functional cells (fnl. cells) and corresponding to them functioning units (fng. units) of all organisational levels have different periods of time of existence in a structure of a given systemic formation. All functional modifications are based on this principle as well as the temporal continuance of the functioning of physical, chemical, biological and even social systems.
     Thus if a molecule of water because of some reason dissociates to separate atoms then its three fnl. cells will terminate their existence while fng. units - two atoms of hydrogen and an atom of oxygen - will occupy empty fnl. cells of other systemic formations of a given organisational level. On the contrary, during the process of oxidation of hydrogen sulphide H2S an atom of oxygen occupies the fnl. cell of sulphur while sulphur in a free form falls out to a sediment.
     In the same way we can trace rotations of fng. units - albumen and protein in corresponding fnl. cells of organic cells as well as fng. units - workers in structures of fnl. cells of enterprises.
     Besides, it is necessary to note that in the process of motion in quality Matter at first originates more and more new layers of fnl. cells which are being filled in after that with fng. units corresponding to them while the number of fnl. cells of conceptually "upper" layers always exceeds the number of being originated fng. units corresponding to them. Meanwhile the process of reduction of conceptually "lower" layers of fnl. cells is taking place, forcing functioning units which have become free to migration, that is to occupying corresponding functional cells in new structural formations.
     The number of functioning units is regulated by the structural requirement of this or that systemic formation. Any system of level n can be considered integral and functionally complete only in the case that all the fnl. cells of its structure are filled in with functioning units corresponding to them. Such a system is hypothetically closed for all fng. units that cannot get into its filled in fnl. cells. At the same time a system becomes open as soon as free functional cells appear in its structure ready to accept corresponding fng. units. This feature of systems is the basis of all chemical reactions, physical interactions, biological, social and other systemic phenomena.

     Principle 10    Groups of functioning units filling in structures of functional cells of systemic formations of level n create different subsystems with distinctive fnl. features while all fng. units by significance are equal in between only in one thing - all of them are bearers of definite fnl. features that they realise in the process of their functioning in a corresponding fnl. cell. But functional cells themselves occupy in a structure of any system rather unequal positions dictated by the systemic organisation of a given material formation. Consequently the more complex a system is organised the more distinctly a particular structural coordination between its fnl. cells is exuding in it regulated by created intercell links, and fng. units filling in corresponding to them fnl. cells form certain kind of fnl. pyramids of coordination and are distinguished in fact only by their fnl. significance.

     Principle 11    The functioning of every dynamic complete system is happening under the influence of the three factors:
     1. Energetic - due to the action of which the synthesis of systemic formations is carried out in the way of filling in fnl. cells with corresponding fng. units and closing the system for excessive fng. units;
     2. Entropic - with the help of which the breaking of fnl. cells of systemic complexes having finished functioning happens and as a result of that having become free fng. units move to fnl. cells of other systemic formations;
     3. Accumulative - is used for accumulation of fng. units, preventing their possible desintegration in order to use them actively later on in newly formed systemic formations.
     Therefore in every adiabatic (that is being in conceptual isolation) dynamic system or subsystem the revealing of two as minimum active centres is noticeable. For one of them a predominance of the energetic factor is typical, the influence of which is exposing in origination of fnl. cells on different organisational levels (predominantly along the hypothetical vertical line) and filling them in with being available fng. units. This brings to lowering of the level of relative order in a subsystem but procures its development in quality. For the other centre a predominance of the entropic factor is typical, leading to the origination of functional cells actually on one organisational level (along the hypothetical horizontal line) and correspondingly filling them in with fng. units. This brings a given part of a system to a more balanced state. A location of both centres in structures of systems is not permanent and moves depending on changing intrasystemic conditions. As a result of the effect of both factors an increase of a number of fng. units of one level in one of the centres and shortage of them in the other one are happening. This is the reason for displacements of fng. units from a donoric field, where they are in surplus, to an accepting field of corresponding to them empty functional cells.
     Thus the evolution of any dynamic material system can happen only in the presence of both centres (energetic and entropic), that is during the effect of the factor of bipolarity of developing systems. Its availability one can trace practically in all processes and phenomena happening in the nature as well as in events of social life (beginning from a chemical process of burning and finishing with social phenomena of unemployment or shortage of labour force, etc.).

     Principle 12    Regulation of motion of material formations is provided owing to its systemness from which definite rules of motion of fng. units in quality-space-time are following. The analysis of the progress of the evolution of the material substance along the ordinate of quality shows that all material formations - fng. units by functional signs are being divided into a great number of levels of systemic organisation creating strictly regular organisational sequence while every new level includes in the capacity of elements of its structure - fng. units - systemic formations of lower levels. However, because of the fact that the total energy of the whole material substance is of a constant magnitude, its quantity is strictly regulated for every organisational level while the synthesis of systems of higher levels is connected with reduction of kinetic energy of material microformations, which as if getting stuck in a structure of macrosystems of a new level, is being transformed into its hypothetical energetic potential.
     Thus every system of a higher order filling in structures of its functional cells with functioning units - material formations of previous levels as if accumulates kinetic energy of their motion transforming it into potential energy of connection in the structure of a given system. Therefore the formation of functioning systems of each subsequent stage happens simultaneously with the compulsory accumulation of energy of the motion in space-time of units of a previous level. And vice versa, a desintegration of a system of fnl. cells of any level breaks an interconnection between its fng. units, transferring them to the previous, lower level of systemic organisation where they, following the regulations out of formula , increase the velocity of their displacement in space, transforming in that way potential energy of connection in the structure of a disintegrated system into kinetic energy of motion in space-time of functioning units which have become free.

     The regulations and principles of the general theory of material systems are partially well-known, but partially are not known at all though in practical Life we have to meet them, often without realising, almost every day. Therefore by tracing the processes of systemic formation and the evolution of the material substance concretely through the already well-known organisational levels one can get additional proofs of their existence and operation.

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