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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
III. Dialectical Genesis of Material Systems
"It is precisely dialectics that constitutes the most important form of thinking for present-day natural science, for it alone offers the analogue for, and thereby the method of explaining, the evolutionary processes occurring in nature, interconnections in general, and transitions from one field of investigation to another."
"Dialectics of nature"
The Cascade Nature of the World Formation
The Science, being the result of human cognition, at present is in the next in turn important phase of its development. Logically generalising more and more empirical material it deduces strictly formulated regularities. Theoretical generalisations obtained become more and more abstract, more and more branching.
And really, the plan of ontogenesis of our cognition looks like a growing tree when every passing year adds to it more and more sprigs and leaves, pre-determining and dividing the front of yet unknown to more and more narrow sections in every separate direction. Our every new knowledge-leaf covers by itself the next in turn white spot of our ignorance that, if to delay, at a certain moment can turn into rudeness, and for which this or that community of people can pay in their well-being, progress and even existence. The Human Intellect, as the instrument of cognition, serves the natural interests of the Human society to prevent such moments.
The Human civilisation as a macrosystemic formation of Matter of a very high level n, being at a stage of its further evolution, could make its first theoretical generalisations only through the empiricist cognition of the surrounding world. From the beginning these searches were made by means of casual observations, but then also with the assistance of special research and investigations both in space (macro- and micro-) and in time (mainly in history, that is in -t) and even in quality (by way of research of functions of systemic formations of lower levels of Matter: n-1, n-2, n-3, etc.). Thus, the human civilisation only through abstraction, logical thought and experiment can penetrate (though partially, though theoretically) into one of the neighbouring lower levels of the systemic origination of Matter, going down the stages of cascaded organisation, but not going up from some "zero" level.
Therefore the Science until now has disputed how "the Universe was created" and what was "the origin" of it. As the requirement in knowledge of that appeared already relatively long ago, clergy of different confessions because of this ignorance advise their own theological versions (naive enough from the scientific point of view and often contradicting each other) about a divine creation of the World. The theory of "the initial explosion", popular among astrophysics, is away in fact not far from that.
Thus, the absolute zero level of the qualitative development of Matter is unknown yet to the Science as well as the fact whether it was and/or exists in general. However, for a relatively initial level of the systemic evolution we can take theoretically any of the lowest sublevels of the systemic organisation of Matter that have become known. It is necessary to do first of all for the simplification of the chronological description and understanding of the progress of the dialectical Evolution of material systems in accordance with the motion along coordinates of quality-time-space from simple to combined, from early to late, from small to large, etc.
The lowest level of the systemic structure of Matter, known to modern Science, one can consider the phenomenon of zero vibration of vacuum. Particles filling it have the name virtual. There are no deep serious theories yet about functional features of this systemic organisation of Matter because of the impossibility of carrying out an observation or setting an experiment in the frames of this sublevel, but while studying the microworld one should take into consideration the presence of the said phenomenon. There is an assumption that the time of the functioning of virtual particles is very short, they appear in couples "particle–antiparticle", and disappear right away in order to appear anew.
The phenomenon of zero vibration of vacuum has something in common with the hypothesis about the existence of particles-tachyons, moving with a superlight velocity and with a very short period of functioning (existence).
The systemic formations consisting of quarks are at present a more basic lower functional sublevel, piercing the whole structure of Matter. Six types of quarks as minimum are already known nowadays. Besides them at this sublevel there are also gluons connecting functionally differential quarks into structural formations that are fng. units of a higher level (protons, neutrons and others).
The nature and functional features of quarks are being studied intensively, but already the differences have been found in such characteristics as charge, isotopic spin, oddity, baryonic charge, spin, etc.
It would be quite natural to say that quarks and gluons are not the smallest systemic formations of Matter, but modern Science unfortunately cannot yet cognise the structure and composition of quarks themselves. It is known only, that it is practically impossible to find quarks in a free form and therefore in order to single them out one should split particles by applying big quantities of energy. This fact indicates that the systemic organisation of the present sublevel has become fully stable and the Evolution is going on at higher organisational levels of Matter.
As regards the sphere of spreading of the present level then it stretches at least in the spatial volume of our whole Universe. In any case the whole outer space visible by us from the Earth is the field of its spreading. Lack of sufficient information about the nature, time of functioning, functional features and structure of units of the present sublevel does not allow us yet to say with full authenticity what role quarks and gluons have played and plays in the process of the Evolution of Matter, but there are reasons to suppose that this role is very important. In any case, in the philosophical classification these material formations occupy quite rightfully one of the basic sublevels in the cascade of the systemic organisation of material forms.
We should pick out into a separate sublevel of the systemic Evolution of Matter the following group of well-known particles that compile material formations of higher levels. Here we can take photons, electrons, gravitons, neutrino as well as similar to them particles and corresponding antiparticles. Because of big difficulties connected with the observation and study of these material formations, their functional features and the character of their interaction are not yet learned in full. But in contradistinction to units of the level A you can find them more often in a free form and that shows functional peculiarities and big spatial metrics of the systemic formations including them.
Into the group of units of the present sublevel we should take Pi- , Mu- and K- mesons, hyperons and particles and antiparticles similar to them. Their main distinguishing feature is that they are the systemic formations of units of sublevels A and AA, not long-lived by the time of their existence, that characterises their systemic unstability. As a rule they as fng. units occupy fnl. cells of structures of a higher order, but after leaving them they immediately disintegrate to their components. You cannot observe these units in a free form during a relatively long period of time. Their functional features in systemic formations of higher order have not been studied enough either.
The stable systemic formations of so-called 'elementary' particles form the next well-known functional sublevel of the evolving Matter. As it is known, the priority of elementarity they were having temporally because of difficulties the early science suffered trying to partition them to components. Now, after it was already done, their name has merely symbolical meaning and possibly will be forgotten soon.
To this group we should take protons and neutrons as well as particles and antiparticles corresponding to them. As it is already known now, their structural composition constitutes a systemic combination of units of sublevels A, AA and AB, but in contradistinction to material formations of the level AB they are characterised by a longer temporal stability, that is a longer period of functioning in time. So, for example, if the time of functioning of a Mu- meson equals only 2·10-6 sec. (two millionth parts of a second), then the time of existence of neutrons and protons is much longer.
Nowadays more than 200 appellations of fng. units, circulating in sublevels A - B, are known.
More than one hundred atomic elements of the periodical system of Mendeleev constitute systemic formations of the sublevel C. The functional features of these units have been studied more deeply than the characteristics of the units of sublevels A - B. Their inner structure by now is also very well-known.
The structural difference between them comes down to the number of protons, neutrons, mesons and electrons, entering them, but every next addition of a couple proton-electron to a system abruptly changes the functional characteristics of the whole combined unit entirely and this serves as an obvious confirmation of the regulation of the number of fnl. cells in every given system.
The field of spatial spreading of units of the level C is (as well as for units of sub levels A - B) the whole field of the Universe visible by us.
The principal mass of any unit of the present level - atom - more than for 99,9% is concentrated in its nucleus, the dimensions of which is 10-13 cm, that is 105 times less the dimensions of the atom itself (10-8 cm). So, if to imagine the dimensions of an atom in the form of a football field (with the diameter 100 m), then the atomic nucleus would correspond to a pellet with the diameter only 1 mm. Nuclei have complicated structure of fnl. cells. The principal elements filling them in as fng. units are the nuclear particles of the sublevel B - nucleons: protons and neutrons. Their masses of rest are equal accordingly to 1,00812 and 1,00893 of ideal units. The mass of electrons forming part of any atom is almost 2000 times less (5.5·10-6 i.u.) the mass of nucleons. The particles intermediate by mass between electrons and protons and forming part of nucleus - Mu- and Pi- mesons - have bigger masses than electron in 210 and 275 times accordingly.
The formation of stable and compact atomic nucleus from nucleons - protons and neutrons - can be explained by the arising of nuclear power, nuclear links between them, and mesons are responsible for that. Nucleons are exchanging between themselves with mesons turning in turn into now proton, now neutron, while a proton can form links with a limited number of neutrons, and vice versa, a neutron gets links with a definite number of protons. Therefore the stability of nuclei depends on a number of protons and neutrons that are filling in the fnl. cells of a structure of a nucleus.
The number of protons defines the magnitude of the positive charge of a nucleus, and that is the most important characteristic of an atom, as the number of electrons in an electroneutral atom and finally functional features of every atom depend on it.
The mass of a nucleus ('the mass number of an atom' - A), being a sum of masses of all protons and neutrons forming part of a nucleus, is practically equal to the mass of the whole atom.
Nuclei, having the same number of protons, can have a different number of neutrons, that is to be isotopes. Almost all chemical elements have several isotopes. The elements, having charge of the nucleus from 40 to 56, that are located in the middle of the periodical system, have the most numerous isotopes (per 6-10 each). The number of lasting (stable) isotopes is considerably less than the number of unstable, that is radio-active ones. The stability of nuclei depends on the number of protons and neutrons, forming them as fng. units, and on their ratio. In structures of fnl. cells of maximum stable nuclei of light elements there is one neutron per each proton. With the growth of the charge of the nucleus the increase of the number of neutronic fnl. cells outstrips the increase of the number of protonic ones. In nuclei with
A < 25every nucleon is being dragged up by nuclear forces to all the rest nucleons, in nuclei with À = 25 - 30the nuclear forces begin to be sated (that is every nucleon is being dragged up not by all the rest nucleons, but only by those that closely surround it). In nuclei with À > 50the force of electrical repulsion between protons more and more noticeably counteracts to forces of nuclear link. Any two protons, being located in diametrically opposite sides of a big nucleus, continue to interact electrically while for nuclear interaction they are located already too far one from another. On the contrary, in the lightest nuclei all nucleons are located so near one from another that the effect of the force of repulsion is fully neutralised by nuclear attraction. It is natural that the force of repulsion as a functional characteristic of the present structure is striving to destroy large atomic nuclei contrary to the restraining influence of the functional characteristic of nuclear attraction, and therefore the magnitude of forces of the connection of such a nucleus would depend on a ratio between these two forces. This balance of some very heavy nuclei is quite unsteady; such nuclei become unstable and strive to a spontaneous desintegration, that is are radio-active. This happens mainly when there is shortage or excess of neutrons in a nucleus. Depending on the kind of particles emitted by a nucleus one can distinguish several types of radio-active desintegration: protonic, positronic, electronic, etc.
Massive positively charged nuclei of atoms create around themselves a powerful electromagnetic field, in which in fnl. cells of atomic orbitals in a definite way electrons are placed. The number of electrons in an atom (equal to the charge of its nucleus) as well as their location in space, determine all chemical, and consequently, functional features of each element. Therefore any change of the fnl. characteristics of any substance as well as the transformation of some substances into others are linked with the change of internal structure of fnl. cells of their atoms, with number and composition of filling them in fng. units of lower sublevels.
The planetary model of composition of an atom, which existed until recent time, could not explain not only all the variety of functional (chemical) characteristics of different atoms, but even the thin structure of spectrums of radiation. Therefore nowadays the model of atom gains a firm hold more and more, which consists of a nucleus, enveloped by closed stagnant waves of electrons, forming 'an electronic cloud', in which the movement of electrons along definite trajectories is impossible to imagine, as for example the movement of planets around a star. Hence there is always uncertainty in the position of electrons, in determination of their location.
The dual nature (dualism) of electron, having characteristics of both a particle and a wave, leads to the fact that its movement cannot be described by a definite trajectory. A trajectory is being 'washed away', a strip of uncertainty appears, within the bounds of which the electron is located. At any moment of time it is impossible to define both the position in space and the velocity (or impulse) of the electron. The movement of the electron is described with the help of a wave function, being a function of spatial coordinates. The wave function should be synonymous, final and continuous in space. It is equal to zero in places where the electron cannot be located. As a result of the calculation of a wave function we get volumetric figures - 'electronic clouds', that have the name of atomic orbitals. They are described by three constant whole numbers - quantum numbers. Their meanings indicate the probable location of an electron in an atom.
The 'main quantum number' determines the most probable distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom, that is an average radius of electronic layer (orbit). The 'azimuth quantum number' determines the moment of quantity of movement of an electron and characterises electronic sublayers (sublevels of energy), forming every layer. The 'magnetic quantum number' determines the orientation of every sublayer in space that cannot be arbitrary.
So then, electrons in every atom are located in layers, layers are divided into sublayers, every sublayer consists of oriented in space fields - atomic orbitals, in the fnl. cells of which the probability of being of electron is the topmost. The position of an electron in an atom depends also on its own moment of quantity of movement, which is appearing as if because of 'rotation' of the electron around its axis. At the same time, an electron, having some electrical charge, reveals its own magnetic moment, characterised with the spin quantum number. Due to the fact that the rotation of an electron can be going in two mutually opposite directions, maximum two fng. units - electrons can fill in the couple of fnl. cells of each atomic orbital, moreover both of them should have opposite (antiparallel) spins.
Since the whole energy of an electron is its principal characteristic, which is taken into account by the wave equation, its magnitude defines the probability of being of an electron in a fnl. cell of this or that atomic orbital. The levels of energy of an electron cannot be arbitrary as they should be a multiple of Planck's constant. It is known that during transition from an upper allowed level to a lower one (closer to the nucleus), an electron frees itself from a surplus of energy emitting it in the form of electromagnetic waves. In the case of absorption by an electron of energy an opposite process is going on - the atom is being excited. In an unexcited atom the electrons have minimum energy and consequently are situated in fnl. cells of atomic orbital, that are located 'closer' to the nucleus. Precisely speaking, the electron occupies the functional cell of that atomic orbital, the staying in which allows it for the most part to be situated near the nucleus of the atom.
It is natural to suppose that electrons participating in the formation of an electronic cover of an atom, are composing themselves first of all in fnl. cells of atomic orbitals, characterised by the smallest energies, and after filling them in, on more and more upper levels, that is the order of formation of electronic cover of an atom, the order of its development together with the growth of charge of the nucleus and corresponding increase of the number of electrons coincides with the sequence of location of atomic orbitals according their energies.
We have stopped on the description of structures of systemic formations of the level C in detail for several reasons.
Firstly, on the basis of additional knowledge obtained by scientists during recent years as a result of experiments at powerful accelerators of particles, our ideas about the construction of the atom are undergoing bigger and bigger changes, and the model of its structure becomes more and more complicated.
Secondly, the knowledge of the construction of atoms is essential in order to understand the genuine picture of the formation of the material Universe, because this organisational sublevel nowadays is primary, since in its construction the peculiarities of the evolution of lower for us sublevels of Matter are revealed, its variations define functional interactions of material structures of higher levels.
Thirdly, the fine structure of the construction of the atom and its components should demonstrate that material units are not spontaneously developed formations. All of them, even at a so relatively low organisational level, represent systemic formations of Matter created in accordance with the strictly definite laws from functioning units of lower sublevels, bearing corresponding functional load, the character of which would be more clear on considering the construction of systems of the next levels in the general line of the organisational evolution of the material substance.
Thus, the complex elements of the sublevel C - atoms - according to their construction allow one to set out in the order of growth of the charges of their nuclei. Precisely this was actualised by D.I. Mendeleev in 1869 and as a result of that a rather methodical periodical system of elements appeared bearing his name. Since the charge of a nucleus defines the number of electrons, then atoms of every following element have one electron more, than the atoms of the previous one.
The most widespread element of the Universe is hydrogen. About half of the mass of the Sun and most of other stars falls on its part. Gas nebulas, interstellar gas contain it. It is forming stars. In depths of stars the transformation of the nuclei of atoms of hydrogen into the nuclei of atoms of helium is going on while elements of sublevels A and AA are being radiated, afterwards filling fnl. cells in different systemic formations of the Universe.
There is no cause to turn down a supposition that the motion of Matter in quality
()during the definite historical period (-t) was going on in the Universe exactly along the lines of construction of the structural formations of atoms (that is along the sublevel C) from the simplest elements - hydrogen, helium - to the more and more complicated. How long this period was lasting ()and how far newly formed elements have spread in space (), it is impossible to say precisely for the time being, but right now it is possible to make a few certain deductions.
Firstly, the process of the formation of elements of the level C - atoms - was going on with the absorption of considerable quantities of kinetic energy, its systemic binding in structures of units of the new level, transferring it into hypothetical power potential. Bearing in mind that the total quantity of energy for the whole aggregate Matter is a constant magnitude, during the increase of the number of heterofunctional atomic elements and the further integration of their structures, the item of the kinetic energy was decreasing more and more, which resulted in the appearance in the Universe of peculiar condensations of material formations - stars, alternating with relatively boundless spaces practically free of energy. In other words, as a result of the integrative process of systemic organisation within the limits of the level C during the above stated phase of the Evolution of Matter, the energy along the whole length of space-time of the Universe was grouped into relative concentrations - galaxies and spots - stars, although the dimensions of those concentrations and spots, expressed in the metric system, have rather impressive magnitudes.
Secondly, by the same reason leading to the lowering of the numerator in the formula the velocity of the spreading of every material formation of subsequent organisational levels is also decreasing at the end striving to zero.
Thirdly, in the process of the motion of Matter in quality along the level C, started, as we have already said, from the formation of hydrogen and helium, more than 100 types of structures of different elements were assembled. The appearance of more cumbersome atoms than uranium and plutonium is made difficult owing to the exceeding of forces of repulsion of protons in their nuclei over forces of nuclear link. As a result in such atoms a desintegration to elements with more steady nuclear structures is taking place. Because of this any further motion of Matter in quality along the level C became impossible and it got over to the level D, to the examination of which we shall pass herein after. However, before that we shall make some remarks that are very important for our study.
All the particles of sublevels A, AA, AB, B and C, examined by us, form a group of functioning units, which serves as a foundation for the evolution of all further systemic formations of Matter. The total number of said elements exceeds 300, however, each combination constitutes a new variant of the systemic organisation on the given level and leads to a creation of a new functioning unit with strictly definite characteristics. Without knowledge of the regularities of the formation of these units and the distinguishing peculiarities of the alteration of their functional features it is impossible to cognize the whole picture of the Evolution of Matter. We also should remember that for all units and systemic formations of levels A - C the laws of the general theory of systems are typical and valid continuously, in accordance with which every functional cell of any systemic formation should be occupied and always is occupied only by the functioning unit corresponding to it. Therefore in any nucleus the fnl. place of proton should be occupied only by a proton with the strictly corresponding fnl. characteristic, but not by a hyperon or meson. All fnl. cells of atomic orbitals are being filled in by electrons with strictly specific characteristics, and in the case of alteration of one of them the electron cannot stay already in the given fnl. cell, which entails a change of fnl. features of the whole system of the given atom. At the same time all chemical compounds of substances are based on the temporal diversity of the periods of existence of fnl. cells of atomic orbitals and fng. units - electrons.
The dual nature of functional cells and functioning units is confirmed by the famous theory of Dirak about antiparticles. As it is known, its idea comes to the following. If all positions with negative energy (fnl. cells) in any systemic formations are already occupied by fng. units - electrons, no one new electron can get over to these positions from positions with positive energy, since, as we know, each fnl. cell can be occupied only by one fng. unit - there is no place there for another one. However, if by some reason an electron with negative energy leaves its fnl. cell, among positions with negative energy one position will remain not filled in, or, as one used to say, a 'hole' will appear. But lack of negative charge is perceiving as a positive charge and lack of negative energy - as ordinary positive energy: minus by minus gives plus. Dirak's theory predicted the possibility of the appearance of positively charged electrons, which later got the name positrons. If an ordinary electron with negative charge meets a positron, it can fill up the hole, that is 'fall' to a vacant place among positions with negative energy. The surplus of energy would be transmitted to the electromagnetic field and the background of electrons with negative energy would become uniform everywhere, that is not being observed. So if all the positions with negative energy are occupied, that is the normal and main condition of the background as a whole: then there are no holes-positrons. Interaction of an electron (fng. unit) with a positron (fnl. cell) results in the annihilation of their particular qualitative features while they themselves become a part of a structure of a higher systemic organisation.
The principle of duality of fnl. cells and fng. units is attributed also to structures of bigger elements. Thus in an experimental way, as it is known, antinuclei of isotope of helium-3 were detected. It is not excluded, that one of the continuations of this theory is logically connected with a solution of the mysteries of large black holes in outer space and the possibility of existence of the antiworld. But this is the subject of another study.
Considering the nature of interactions of different elements of sublevels A - C we can subdivide them in accordance with universally recognised classification into four types, differing one from the other: strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational. Their big difference is seen from the comparison of the relative intensities of interactions, which relate correspondingly as 1:10-2:10-5:10-38. The gravitational interaction determines the structure of outer space, electromagnetic - the structure of atom and molecule, the strong interaction defines the structure of nucleus. All particles of mentioned sublevels are exposed to the weak interaction with the exception of photon. Moreover it is necessary to keep in mind, that certain symmetries are attributed to all said interactions. And if for some interactions they are closely connected with the symmetry of space-time, then for the others they submit to the laws of internal symmetry of interactions.
Before the continuation of our study along the coordinate of quality we should stop at one more important moment. As we have already noted, parallel with the motion of Matter in the sublevel C, that is a functional differentiation of its cells and units, simultaneous concentration of elements into star bodies, which spatial volume was incomparably less than left materially rarefied interstellar space, was taking place. As a result, with the help of already mentioned formula of the whole energy of a system of spots
one can make a range of interesting conclusions.
It is known, that because they are bound in star structures, displacements of material formations of the sublevel C are extremely decreased (that is , and ), while energy of the whole system remains as a constant magnitude. Then the formula of the whole energy for systemic elements, having concentrated in space, will be transformed into the sense expression . But if to take into consideration, that a total mass is an object of functional differentiation , then the said dependence one can write as , which means, that in conditions of the limitation of movement in space, characteristic for material particles concentrated in star-planetary bodies of the Universe, for keeping the trend of the tensor of the Evolution of Matter the motion in quality
()should be in quadratic dependence from the motion of Matter in time. Owing to this the increment of functional features of material systems, concentrated in star-planetary formations, for some region of the Universe is passing considerably faster, than if it was happening for the whole material substance uniformly stretching and moving along the space of the Universe.
From the same equations it follows that for material systems - fng. units the movement of which in space is practically limited
(), the time of functioning is equal to the square root from their functional total mass , that is the less is their total mass the shorter is the period of their functioning and, correspondingly, existence. Figuratively speaking, the obtained equation one can name "the formula of death of all frozen".
It is appropriate to note here, that with every subsequent organisational level of the Evolution of Matter the fng. units are bearing more and more fnl. loads, that is the coefficient of their polyfunctionality is increasing. And the more complex in organisation a structural level of Matter is, the higher this coefficient will be. The noted factor facilitates the solution of the problem of acceleration of the motion of Matter in quality
()in conditions of the limited space ()of star-planetary formations.
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